The Testing Effect: Illustrating a Fundamental Concept and Changing Study Strategies

  title={The Testing Effect: Illustrating a Fundamental Concept and Changing Study Strategies},
  author={Gilles O. Einstein and Hillary G. Mullet and Tyler Leland Harrison},
  journal={Teaching of Psychology},
  pages={190 - 193}
An important recent finding is that testing improves learning and memory. In this article, the authors describe a demonstration that illustrates this principle and helps students incorporate more testing into their learning. The authors asked students to read one text using a Study–Study strategy and one text using a Study–Test strategy. One week later, the authors tested students’ memory for both texts with short-answer quizzes. The results revealed the standard testing effect and served as… 
“What’s on the Test?”: The Impact of Giving Students a Concept-List Study Guide
Students frequently request concept-list study guides prior to exams, but the benefits of instructors providing such resources are unclear. Research on memory and comprehension has suggested that
Comparing Review Strategies in the Classroom
Although previous research has demonstrated that guided testing (i.e., self-testing) and question generation effectively increase retention compared to control methods, no work has simultaneously
Examining the Testing Effect in University Teaching: Retrievability and Question Format Matter
Examining the testing effect in its pure form by implementing a minimal intervention design in a university lecture suggests that short-answer testing but not multiple-choice testing may benefit learning in higher education contexts.
Testing enhances learning: A review of the literature.
  • S. Binks
  • Psychology
    Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
  • 2018
Rethinking the Use of Tests: A Meta-Analysis of Practice Testing
The testing effect is a well-known concept referring to gains in learning and retention that can occur when students take a practice test on studied material before taking a final test on the same
The Testing Effect in the Psychology Classroom: A Meta-Analytic Perspective
The testing effect is a robust empirical finding in the research on learning and instruction, demonstrating that taking tests during the learning phase facilitates later retrieval from long-term
Testing (quizzing) boosts classroom learning: A systematic and meta-analytic review.
The results show that overall testing (quizzing) raises student academic achievement to a medium extent and support 3 theories to account for the classroom testing effect: additional exposure, transfer-appropriate processing, and motivation.
Can tests improve learning in real university classrooms?
ABSTRACT Long-term memory of a stimulus is likely to be better when individuals are tested on the stimulus than when they merely restudy it. This “testing effect” suggests tests could be used in real
The Testing Effect and How It Affects the Performance of 6 th Grade Students
The Learning Curve is an occasional journal of education by students and professors. Abstract The testing effect is a useful method of instruction. However it has only been used sporadically as an
Self-testing promotes superior retention of anatomy and physiology information
The testing effect can be generalized to real-life settings such as university anatomy and physiology courses and to independent study situations and is presented that suggests students benefited from instructions to self-test when preparing for exams on their own.


Test-Enhanced Learning
Investigation of the testing effect with educationally relevant materials and whether testing facilitates learning only because tests offer an opportunity to restudy material concluded that testing is a powerful means of improving learning, not just assessing it.
Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practise retrieval when they study on their own?
It is proposed that many students experience illusions of competence while studying and that these illusions have significant consequences for the strategies students select when they monitor and regulate their own learning.
Testing the testing effect in the classroom
Laboratory studies show that taking a test on studied material promotes subsequent learning and retention of that material on a final test (termed the testing effect). Educational research has
The Power of Testing Memory: Basic Research and Implications for Educational Practice
This article selectively review laboratory studies that reveal the power of testing in improving retention and then turns to studies that demonstrate the basic effects in educational settings, including the related concepts of dynamic testing and formative assessment.
Learners’ choices and beliefs about self-testing
The results demonstrated a mismatch between metacognitive beliefs and study choices: Participants judged that the pair mode resulted in the most learning, but chose the test mode most frequently.
Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning than Elaborative Studying with Concept Mapping
The study found that students using the retrievalpractice technique scored significantly higher than students using the study-once, repeated-study, and concept-mapping techniques. The average percent
2.43 – Cognition, Memory, and Education
The Read-Recite-Review Study Strategy
Results indicate that 3R is also an efficacious study technique that capitalizes on the mnemonic potency of retrieval and feedback, and an inherent advantage of 3R relative to other testing methods for improving learning.
Illusions of competence in monitoring one's knowledge during study.
  • A. Koriat, R. Bjork
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2005
Using a paired-associates task, the authors examined aspects of the cue-target relationships that seemed likely contributors to such illusions of competence as the probability with which a cue, when presented alone, elicits the corresponding target versus the perceived association between the cue and the target when both are present.
Metamemory in older adults: the role of monitoring in serial recall.
Older and younger adults were asked to think aloud while studying sets of pictures matched in difficulty for immediate serial recall. When instructed only to remember, young adults tended to study