The TRACE model of speech perception

@article{McClelland1986TheTM,
  title={The TRACE model of speech perception},
  author={James L. McClelland and Jeffrey L. Elman},
  journal={Cognitive Psychology},
  year={1986},
  volume={18},
  pages={1-86}
}
Testing between the TRACE model and the fuzzy logical model of speech perception
  • D. Massaro
  • Computer Science
    Cognitive Psychology
  • 1989
Spoken word recognition without a TRACE
TLDR
A new model of spoken word recognition is inspired that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units.
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Two versions of a “cohort”-based model of the process of spoken word-recognition are described, showing how if evolves from a partially interactive model, where access is strictly autonomous but selection is subject to top-down control, to a fully bottom-up models, where context plays no role in the processes of form-based access and selection.
RAW: a real-speech model for human word recognition
TLDR
A new connectionist model for spoken-word recognition is described which differs on a number of points from other models, in that it takes real speech as input, is based on a new architecture for the representation of time, and can adapt its own weights.
A Connectionist Model of Phonological Representation in Speech Perception
TLDR
A model of both abstraction and inference in speech perception, based on connectionist learning techniques is presented, and it is predicted that similar behavior will be found in the perception of nonsense words.
The use of time during lexical processing and segmentation: A review
Speech, by its very nature, is a time-based phenomenon. Speech sounds are temporally distributed, with the presentation of one sound roughly conditioned by the fading of the previous one. In this
Bridging the gap between human and automatic speech recognition
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