The TRACE model of speech perception

@article{McClelland1986TheTM,
  title={The TRACE model of speech perception},
  author={James L. McClelland and Jeffrey L. Elman},
  journal={Cognitive Psychology},
  year={1986},
  volume={18},
  pages={1-86}
}
Abstract We describe a model called the TRACE model of speech perception. The model is based on the principles of interactive activation. Information processing takes place through the excitatory and inhibitory interactions of a large number of simple processing units, each working continuously to update its own activation on the basis of the activations of other units to which it is connected. The model is called the TRACE model because the network of units forms a dynamic processing structure… Expand
Testing between the TRACE model and the fuzzy logical model of speech perception
  • D. Massaro
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • 1989
TLDR
The TRACE model of speech perception is contrasted with a fuzzy logical model of perception (FLMP) and it is shown that top-down influences from the word level influence sensitivity at the phoneme level, whereas the FLMP does not. Expand
A connectionist model of phonological representation in speech perception
TLDR
A model of these processes in speech perception, based on connectionist learning techniques, is presented and it is predicted that similar behavior will be found in the perception of nonsense words. Expand
Spoken word recognition without a TRACE
TLDR
A new model of spoken word recognition is inspired that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. Expand
Functional parallelism in spoken word-recognition : An introduction
The process of spoken word-recognition breaks down into three basic functions, of access, selection and integration. Access concerns the mapping of the speech input onto the representations ofExpand
RAW: a real-speech model for human word recognition
TLDR
A new connectionist model for spoken-word recognition is described which differs on a number of points from other models, in that it takes real speech as input, is based on a new architecture for the representation of time, and can adapt its own weights. Expand
A Connectionist Model of Phonological Representation in Speech Perception
TLDR
A model of both abstraction and inference in speech perception, based on connectionist learning techniques is presented, and it is predicted that similar behavior will be found in the perception of nonsense words. Expand
Cognitive penetration of the mechanisms of perception: Compensation for coarticulation of lexically restored phonemes
An important question in language processing is whether higher-level processes are able to interact directly with lower-level processes, as assumed by interactive models such as the TRACE model ofExpand
The use of time during lexical processing and segmentation: A review
Speech, by its very nature, is a time-based phenomenon. Speech sounds are temporally distributed, with the presentation of one sound roughly conditioned by the fading of the previous one. In thisExpand
Functional parallelism in spoken word-recognition
TLDR
Two versions of a “cohort”-based model of the process of spoken word-recognition are described, showing how it evolves from a partially interactive model, where access is strictly autonomous but selection is subject to top-down control, to a fully bottom-up model where context plays no role in the processes of form-based access and selection. Expand
Bridging the gap between human and automatic speech recognition
TLDR
The theme of this issue is Bridging the Gap, where the word gap has two interpretations: while HSR focuses on the fundamental understanding of human speech processing, ASR aims at the automatic decoding of the speech signal using statistical models so as to minimise word error rates. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 225 REFERENCES
An interactive activation model of speech perception
We describe a model of speech perception [based on the Interactive Activation Model of Visual Word Perception (cf. McClelland and Rumelhart, in press; Rumelhart and McClelland, in press)] in whichExpand
Segmentation of coarticulated speech in perception
  • C. Fowler
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Perception & psychophysics
  • 1984
The research investigates how listeners segment the acoustic speech signal into phonetic segments and explores implications that the segmentation strategy may have for their perception of theExpand
Sound to Representation: An Information-Processing Analysis
Publisher Summary The information-processing approach provides a worthwhile analytic tool in the study of language processing. The goal is to dissect the complex show into its component parts. WithExpand
Integration of featural information in speech perception.
TLDR
A model for the identification of speech sounds is proposed that assumes that the acoustic cues are perceived independently, and provides a good description of the data, including these boundary changes, while still maintaining complete noninteraction at the feature evaluation stage of processing. Expand
Identifying the speech codes
TLDR
The results suggest that listeners are more likely to respond to the postlexical phonological code when contextual constraints are present, and the Dual Code hypothesis is presented, which indicates that listeners can gain access to, or identify, entities at both of these levels. Expand
Processing interactions and lexical access during word recognition in continuous speech
TLDR
An active direct access model is proposed, in which top-down processing constraints interact directly with bottom-up information to produce the primary lexical interpretation of the acoustic-phonetic input. Expand
An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: part 1.: an account of basic findings
TLDR
A model of context effects in perception is applied to the perception of letters in various contexts and exhibits the perceptual advantage for letters in words over unrelated contexts and is consistent with the basic facts about the word advantage. Expand
Speech perception: a model of acoustic–phonetic analysis and lexical access
TLDR
The LAFS (Lexical Access From Spectra) model is proposed here as a response to issues of acoustic analysis and lexical search; it combines expected phonological and acoustic-phonetic properties of English word sequences into a simple spectral-sequence decoding network structure. Expand
Speech Perception: A Framework for Research and Theory
TLDR
This chapter discusses a psychological framework for speech perception that allows for a natural description of the powerful contribution of both auditory and linguistic context. Expand
The temporal structure of spoken language understanding
TLDR
The combined results provided evidence for an on-line interactive language processing theory, in which lexical, structural, and interpretative knowledge sources communicate and interact during processing in an optimally efficient and accurate manner. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...