The TNT and ANFO equivalences of the Beirut explosion

  title={The TNT and ANFO equivalences of the Beirut explosion},
  author={J. M. Dewey},
  journal={Shock Waves},
  • J. M. Dewey
  • Published 1 January 2021
  • Chemistry, Mathematics
  • Shock Waves
On 4 August 2020, an estimated 2.75 kt of ammonium nitrate exploded in the Port of Beirut, Lebanon. Rigby et al. (Shock Waves 30:671–675, 2020) used observations from numerous video recordings of the explosion to estimate the time-of-arrival of the primary shock at 38 positions, the distances of which from the centre of the explosion were determined from Google maps. These data were analysed to make a preliminary estimate of the TNT equivalence of the explosion, with a best estimate of 0.5 kt… 

Attenuation of blast waves from an intense explosion in dusty gases: a case study

  • M. Chadha
  • Physics, Engineering
    Proceedings of the Royal Society A
  • 2022
An intense explosion in dusty gas is analyzed considering the Beirut ammonium nitrate explosion of 2020 as a case study. The data available from various sources for the Beirut explosion are used to

Time of arrival as a diagnostic for far-field high explosive blast waves

The ability to accurately determine blast loading parameters will enable more fundamental studies on the sources of blast parameter variability and their influence on the magnitude and form of the

Loss prevention learnings from Beirut and similar ammonium nitrate explosions

The recent catastrophic explosion in Beirut highlights how the safe handling and storage of solid ammonium nitrate (AN) is of paramount importance. This article discusses the explosion hazard of

Analysis of Shock Wave Interaction with an Obstacle by Coupling Pressure Measurements and Visualization

Small-scale experiments are a good means of carrying out explosion and shock wave measurements. Commonly, the shock wave is tracked thanks to pressure sensors and sometimes with a high-speed camera.

Blast wave kinematics: theory, experiments, and applications

Measurements of the time of arrival of shock waves from explosions can serve as powerful markers of the evolution of the shock front for determining crucial parameters driving the blast. Using

Beirut explosion: TNT equivalence from the fireball evolution in the first 170 milliseconds

The evolution of the fireball resulting from the August 2020 Beirut explosion is traced using amateur videos taken during the first 400 ms after the detonation. Thirty-nine frames separated by

Teaching physics in real-life contexts: The Beirut explosion

Teaching physics in real-life contexts continues to be a challenge for teachers at different educational levels. In this article, three Context-Rich Problems are proposed to be implemented in the



Studies of the TNT equivalence of propane, propane/oxygen, and ANFO

The TNT equivalences of equal masses of propane, a stoichiometric mixture of propane and oxygen, and ammonium-nitrate–fuel-oil (ANFO) were calculated based on the peak hydrostatic and dynamic

Experimental methods of shock wave research

This comprehensive and carefully edited volume presents a variety of experimental methods used in shock waves research. In 14 self contained chapters this [...] volume [...] presents the experimental

Preliminary yield estimation of the 2020 Beirut explosion using video footage from social media

Rapid, accurate assessment of the yield of a large-scale urban explosion will assist in implementing emergency response plans, will facilitate better estimates of areas at risk of high damage and