The Synergistic Effects of Alcohol and Tobacco Consumption on the Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis

  title={The Synergistic Effects of Alcohol and Tobacco Consumption on the Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis},
  author={Anoop Prabhu and Kenneth Onyebuchi Obi and Joel H. Rubenstein},
  journal={The American Journal of Gastroenterology},
OBJECTIVES:Tobacco and alcohol use are established risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We sought to determine whether these factors act synergistically to increase the risk of ESCC.METHODS:We performed a systematic literature search in multiple electronic databases regardless of language. Eligible studies were population-based case–control or cohort studies of ESCC that assessed the effects of tobacco and/or alcohol. Departures from multiplicative effects were quantified… 

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