The Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak of 1979.

  title={The Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak of 1979.},
  author={Matthew Meselson and Jeanne Guillemin and M Hugh-jones and Alexander D. Langmuir and I. K. Popova and Alexis Shelokov and Olga V Yampolskaya},
  volume={266 5188},
In April and May 1979, an unusual anthrax epidemic occurred in Sverdlovsk, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Soviet officials attributed it to consumption of contaminated meat. U.S. agencies attributed it to inhalation of spores accidentally released at a military microbiology facility in the city. Epidemiological data show that most victims worked or lived in a narrow zone extending from the military facility to the southern city limit. Farther south, livestock died of anthrax along the… 

Reanalysis of the anthrax epidemic in Rhodesia, 1978–1984

A historical reanalysis of the data is performed to reveal an estimated geographic involvement of 245,750 km2, with 171,990 cattle and 17,199 human cases, suggestive of multiple, independent geotemporal foci of anthrax introduced via an unknown mechanism rather than re-emergence from native endemic foci.

The history of anthrax.

Anthrax undervalued zoonosis.

Index case of fatal inhalational anthrax due to bioterrorism in the United States.

This 63-year-old newspaper photo editor had a rapidly progressive febrile illness, and lumbar puncture showed cloudy cerebrospinal fluid with numerous polymorphonuclear leukocytes and many large gram-positive bacilli, singly and in chains.

Anthrax as an example of the One Health concept.

From the earliest historical records until development of an effective vaccine midway through the 20th Century, anthrax was one of the foremost causes of uncontrolled mortality in cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs, with 'spill over' into humans, worldwide.

Detecting Anthrax: What We Learned from the 1979 Sverdlovsk Outbreak

The 1979 outbreak in Sverdlovsk, USSR, is the largest and only example of a local community victimised by inhalation anthrax, and the data on onset, hospital admission, and death rates are described as possible clues to what can be done to identify an outbreak.

A Bacillus anthracis Genome Sequence from the Sverdlovsk 1979 Autopsy Specimens

The Soviet Sverdlovsk strain genome is consistent with a wild-type strain from Russia that had no evidence of genetic manipulation during its industrial production and provides insights into the world’s largest biological weapons program and provides an extensive B. anthracis phylogenetic reference.

The statistical analysis of truncated data: application to the Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak.

The objective of this paper is to develop and apply statistical methodology to analyse the Sverdlovsk outbreak, and in particular to estimate the incubation period of inhalational anthrax and the number of deaths that may have been prevented by the public health intervention.

Clinical and epidemiologic principles of anthrax.

Anthrax spores lend themselves well to aerosolization and resist environmental degradation, and are the ideal size for impinging on human lower respiratory mucosa, optimizing the chance for infection.



Pathology of inhalational anthrax in 42 cases from the Sverdlovsk outbreak of 1979.

A series of 42 necropsies consistently revealed pathologic lesions diagnostic of inhalational anthrax, namely hemorrhagic necrosis of the thoracic lymph nodes in the lymphatic drainage of the lungs and hemorrhagic mediastinitis.

Observations on the prophylaxis of experimental pulmonary anthrax in the monkey

Evidence presented supports the hypothesis that the experimental form of anthrax induced by depositing a cloud of single spores on lung epithelium is initiated in the lymphatic regions and not in lung tissue, and effective prophylactic measures are suggested for dealing with an unimmunized host exposed to anthrax infection by the pulmonary route.

Respiratory pathogenicity of Bacillus anthracis spores; methods of study and observations on pathogenesis.

The general methods of investigation used throughout the studies and observations on the pathogenesis of respiratory anthrax will be presented in the present paper.

Bacterial Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control

  • T. Newton
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
  • 1983
Three chapters are devoted to anti-thyroid antibodies in various thyroid diseases and three more chapters to properties of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies, which include discussions of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis -one of the best characterized of the induced autoimmune diseases in laboratory animals -as well as information about human myASThenia Gravis.

Transport of Lycopodium spores and other small particles to rough surfaces

  • A. Chamberlain
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1967
Measurements have been made in the field and in a wind tunnel of the transport of Lycopodium spores to grass an d other surfaces, and wind tunnel experiments also have been done with aerosols of

Bacterial infections of humans: epidemiology and control.

Information is provided on how to identify and treat tick-borne infections, as well as the types of bacteria and viruses that can cause these infections.


It is shown that when dosage is inferred from the observed mortality on the assumption that susceptibility is distributed normally, such inferred dosages, in terms of units called probits, give straight lines when plotted against the logarithm of their corresponding observed dosages.

Microincineration and elemental X-ray microanalysis of single Bacillus cereus T spores.

High-temperature ashing enhanced element-characteristic X-ray intensities of the non-volatilizable mineral(ized) elements of spores by compacting them into ash residues, more so than by simply abolishing their organic matrix.

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