The Subversive Trilemma: Why Cyber Operations Fall Short of Expectations

@article{Maschmeyer2021TheST,
  title={The Subversive Trilemma: Why Cyber Operations Fall Short of Expectations},
  author={Lennart Maschmeyer},
  journal={International Security},
  year={2021},
  volume={46},
  pages={51-90}
}
Abstract Although cyber conflict has existed for thirty years, the strategic utility of cyber operations remains unclear. Many expect cyber operations to provide independent utility in both warfare and low-intensity competition. Underlying these expectations are broadly shared assumptions that information technology increases operational effectiveness. But a growing body of research shows how cyber operations tend to fall short of their promise. The reason for this shortfall is their subversive… 
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