The Stueckelberg Field

@article{Ruegg2004TheSF,
  title={The Stueckelberg Field},
  author={Henri Ruegg and Mart{\'i} Ruiz-Altaba},
  journal={International Journal of Modern Physics A},
  year={2004},
  volume={19},
  pages={3265-3347}
}
In 1938, Stueckelberg introduced a scalar field which makes an Abelian gauge theory massive but preserves gauge invariance. The Stueckelberg mechanism is the introduction of new fields to reveal a symmetry of a gauge--fixed theory. We first review the Stueckelberg mechanism in the massive Abelian gauge theory. We then extend this idea to the standard model, stueckelberging the hypercharge U(1) and thus giving a mass to the physical photon. This introduces an infrared regulator for the photon in… 

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