The Structure of the Kuiper Belt: Size Distribution and Radial Extent

  title={The Structure of the Kuiper Belt: Size Distribution and Radial Extent},
  author={Brett J. Gladman and J. J. Kavelaars and J. M. Petit and Alessandro Morbidelli and Matthew J. Holman and Thomas Loredo},
  journal={The Astronomical Journal},
The size distribution in the Kuiper Belt records physical processes operating during the formation and subsequent evolution of the solar system. This paper reports a study of the apparent magnitude distribution of faint objects in the Kuiper Belt, obtained via deep imaging on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the ESO Very Large Telescope UT1. We —nd that the entire range of observed objects (magnitudes is well represented by an unbroken power law, with the number of objects per m R D 20¨27… 
We have performed a survey of the Kuiper belt covering ~1/3 deg2 of the sky using Suprime-cam on the Subaru telescope, to a limiting magnitude of m 50(R) ~ 26.8 and have found 36 new Kuiper belt
The Orbital and Spatial Distribution of the Kuiper Belt
Models of the evolution of Neptune’s migration and the dynamical processes at work during the formation of the outer solar system can be constrained by measuring the orbital distribution of the
An introduction to the Kuiper Belt dynamics and collisional evolution
The existence of an outer belt of small bodies in the Solar System has been inferred for long. Since the first direct observation of a Kuiper Belt Object in 1992, an intensive observational and
The Kuiper Belt and the Primordial Evolution of the Solar System
We discuss the structure of the Kuiper belt as it can be inferred from the first decade of observations. In particular, we focus on its most intriguing properties — the mass deficit, the
Dynamical determination of the Kuiper Belt's mass from motions of the inner planets of the Solar System
In this paper we dynamically determine the mass of the Kuiper Belt Objects by exploiting the latest observational determinations of the orbital motions of the inner planets of the Solar System. Our
The Kuiper Belt luminosity function from mR = 22 to 25
In summer 1999, we performed a survey optimized for the discovery of irregular satellites of Uranus and Neptune. We imaged 11.85 deg 2 of sky and discovered 66 new outer Solar system objects (not
Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by High-Precision Photometric Stellar Occultations: First Results
We report here the first detection of hectometer-size objects by the method of serendipitous stellar occultation. This method consists of recording the diffraction shadow created when an object
The Size Distribution of Kuiper Belt Objects
We describe analytical and numerical collisional evolution calculations for the size distribution of icy bodies in the Kuiper belt. For a wide range of bulk properties, initial masses, and orbital
The Collisional Divot in the Kuiper Belt Size Distribution
This paper presents the results of collisional evolution calculations for the Kuiper Belt starting from an initial size distribution similar to that produced by accretion simulations of that region—a
The formation of the Kuiper belt by the outward transport of bodies during Neptune's migration
It is shown that the objects currently observed in the dynamically cold Kuiper belt were most probably formed within ∼35 au and were subsequently pushed outward by Neptune's 1:2 mean motion resonance during its final phase of migration.


Deep Imaging of the Kuiper Belt with the Keck 10 Meter Telescope
We present a new, pencil-beam survey of the Kuiper Belt taken with the Keck 10 m telescope. The cumulative surface density of Kuiper Belt Objects measured to apparent red magnitude mR=26.1 is 31+
The Discovery of Halley-sized Kuiper Belt Objects Using the Hubble Space Telescope
We report the statistical detection (at the >99% confidence level) of a population of 28th magnitude objects exhibiting proper motions of ~1 arcsecond per hour at quadrature in deep HST/WFPC2 images.
Population of the Scattered Kuiper Belt.
The discovery of three new scattered Kuiper Belt objects (SKBOs) from a wide-field survey of the ecliptic are presented, demonstrating that the SKBOs are similar in number and mass to the KuiPer Belt inside 50 AU.
Large Kuiper Belt Objects: The Mauna Kea 8K CCD Survey
We describe a large-area ecliptic survey designed to assess the sky-plane surface density of bright Kuiper Belt objects. We used an 8192 ) 8192 pixel CCD mosaic to image 51.5 deg2 to a 50% detection
A Search for Bright Kuiper Belt Objects
"Since 1992, 60 large Kuiper Belt objects have been detected by ground-based telescopes. Previous surveys which have detected objects have searched approximately 60 square degrees and detected
From the Kuiper Belt to Jupiter-Family Comets: The Spatial Distribution of Ecliptic Comets☆
Abstract We present numerical orbital integrations of thousands of massless particles as they evolve from Neptune-encountering orbits in the Kuiper belt for up to 1 Gyr or until they either impact a
A new dynamical class of object in the outer Solar System
Some three dozen objects have now been discovered beyond the orbit of Neptune and classified as members of the Kuiper belt—a remnant population of icy planetesimals that failed to be incorporated
The Edge of the Solar System
We have surveyed for Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) in six fields of the ecliptic (total sky area 1.5 deg2) to limiting magnitudes between R = 24.9 and R = 25.9. This is deep enough to detect KBOs of
The Phase Space Structure Near Neptune Resonances in the Kuiper Belt
The Solar system beyond Neptune is believed to house a population of small primordial bodies left over from the planet formation process. The region up to heliocentric distance -50 AU (a.k.a. the
Accretion in the Early Outer Solar System
We describe calculations of the evolution of an ensemble of small planetesimals in the outer solar system. In a solar nebula with a mass of several times the minimum mass solar nebula, objects with