The Structure of the Anterior Feeding Apparatus in Members of the Ironidae (Nematoda : Enoplida)

@article{Heiden1974TheSO,
  title={The Structure of the Anterior Feeding Apparatus in Members of the Ironidae (Nematoda : Enoplida)},
  author={A. van der Heiden},
  journal={Nematologica},
  year={1974},
  volume={20},
  pages={419-436}
}
The structure of the adult anterior feeding apparatus of Ironus, Thalassironus, Trissonchulus and Dolicholaimus is described, including hitherto unrecorded structures such as stomodeal pouches, protractors, retractors and tooth muscles. The existence of "hydrostatic tissue" is assumed. The feeding method of Ironidae was studied and the action of muscles associated with feeding was analysed. The unusual arrangement of the lips and position of the ventral gland orifice in the labial region of… 
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The combination of the fish feeding strategies and the poor preservation of the body of the nematode specimens found could indicate that these nematodes are pseudoparasites, appearing in the fishes' digestive tracts through accidental ingestion and thereafter surviving for brief periods of time.
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A new Ironus species is described as well as two known species reported for the first time from South Africa, viz., Chronogaster aspinata and Paraphanolaimus behningi, and the phylogenetic analysis revealed that Ironus is a monophyletic group.
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