The Structure of Disadvantage: Individual and Occupational Determinants of the Black-White Wage Gap

  title={The Structure of Disadvantage: Individual and Occupational Determinants of the Black-White Wage Gap},
  author={Eric Grodsky and Devah Pager},
  journal={American Sociological Review},
This study is motivated by the idea that the racial gap in earnings is generated not only by individual differences but also by systematic variation in the occupational structure that attenuates or exacerbates the effects of race. Using data from the 1990 census and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, a hierarchical linear modeling approach is employed that allows the simultaneous exploration of the mechanisms of income inequality operating both within and between occupations. Among private… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

The declining racial earnings’ gap in United States: Multi-level analysis of males’ earnings, 1960–2000
Despite dramatic changes in education and occupational opportunities for Blacks in the United States, facilitated by affirmative action policies, the White–Black earnings’ gap has not vanished.Expand
Occupational sex segregation and the earnings of occupations: What causes the link among college-educated workers?
Abstract A significant proportion of the earnings gap between men and women is attributable to occupational sex segregation and the concentration of women in relatively low-paying occupations, but weExpand
The Rise of Intra-Occupational Wage Inequality in the United States, 1983 to 2002
Wage inequality has increased dramatically in the United States since the 1980s. This article investigates the relationship between this trend and occupational structure measured at the three-digitExpand
Segregated jobs or ethnic niches?: The impact of racialized employment on earnings inequality
Abstract Using data from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality (MCSUI), this study examines the extent to which the racial or ethnic composition of jobs affects racial and ethnic-linked earningsExpand
Educational Variations in Cohort Trends in the Black-White Earnings Gap Among Men: Evidence From Administrative Earnings Data
Using more than 40 years of longitudinal earnings records from the U.S. Social Security Administration matched to the Survey of Income and Program Participation, analyses reveal that the cohort trends in the racial earnings gap follow quite different patterns by education. Expand
The Continuing Significance of Race in the Occupational Attainment of Whites and Blacks: A Segmented Labor Market Analysis*
In this article we posit that racial discrimination is not uniform across the U.S. labor market. While it is likely that patterns of racial discrimination occur in some types of jobs more thanExpand
Disability, Structural Inequality, and Work: The Influence of Occupational Segregation on Earnings for People with Different Disabilities
Occupational segregation is a fundamental cause of structural inequality within the labor market, but it remains under-researched in the case of disability status. Using 2011 American CommunityExpand
Racial Wage Inequality: Job Segregation and Devaluation across U.S. Labor Markets1
Despite decades of research showing greater black‐white inequality in local areas where the black population is relatively large, little is known about the mechanisms for this effect. Using a uniqueExpand
Organized Labor and Racial Wage Inequality in the United States1
The results recast organized labor as an institution vital for its economic inclusion of African-American men and women and points to the need to move beyond class-based analyses of union decline to an understanding of the gendered role unions once played in mitigating racial inequality. Expand
Race and Ethnicity in the Labor Market; Changes, Restructuring, and Resistance 2000–2014
The labor market is described as a set of queuing practices in which employers rank workers in terms of their views of who is likely to be productive, who they can pay the least, who will notExpand


Effects of Individual, Occupational, and Industrial Characteristics on Earnings: Intersections of Race and Gender
Critics of the "women's agenda" in both research and policy have complained of its exclusivefocus on the experiences of white women. They maintain that as a result of this focus, we know relativelyExpand
Chapter 13 The economic analysis of labor market discrimination: A survey
Publisher Summary The chapter presents a survey on the economics of labor market discrimination, motivated by two fundamental problems associated with income and wage differences among groupsExpand
An Establishment-Level Test of the Statistical Discrimination Hypothesis
This article explores the basic assumption of statistical discrimination theory, which holds that women and minorities earn lower wages because they, on average, have lower productivity. EmployerExpand
Explaining Occupational Sex Segregation and Wages: Findings from a Model with Fixed Effects
Does segregation arise because "female" occupations have financial advantages for women planning to spend some time as homemakers as human-capital theorists claim? Do "male" occupations have moreExpand
Minority Concentration and Earnings Inequality: Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians Compared
This paper investigates the influence of the racial and ethnic composition of labor markets on earnings inequality among black, Hispanic, Asian, and white men to determine whether the influence onExpand
Industrialization and racial inequality in employment: the Brazilian example.
Levels of industrialization and other related factors such as educational level have influenced patterns of racial inequality in occupations in 74 large metropolitan areas in Brazil. Data wereExpand
The Role of Premarket Factors in Black-White Wage Differences
Many attempts to measure the wage effects of current labor market discrimination against minorities include controls for worker productivity that (1) could themselves be affected by marketExpand
Education, Occupation, and Wage Differences Between White and Black Men
Past research has indicated repeatedly that black men receive lower wages than white males working in the same occupation. Past findings have also suggested that these within-occupation raceExpand
Cognitive Skill and Economic Inequality: Findings from the National Adult Literacy Survey
Few would deny that the civil rights and women's movements have substantially changed U.S. society. Yet ethnic and gender inequality in employment and earnings remain large. Even when comparisons areExpand
Occupational Mobility of Black Men: 1962-1973
William Julius Wilson argues that the gains in employment and occupational status that blacks made during the 1960s bred class cleavages that did not exist within the black population prior to 1960.Expand