The Structure and Adhesive Mechanism of Octopus Suckers1

  title={The Structure and Adhesive Mechanism of Octopus Suckers1},
  author={William M. Kier and Andrew M. Smith},
  booktitle={Integrative and Comparative Biology},
Abstract Octopus suckers consist of a tightly packed three-dimensional array of muscle with three major muscle fiber orientations: 1) radial muscles that traverse the wall; 2) circular muscles arranged circumferentially around the sucker; and 3) meridional muscles oriented perpendicular to the circular and radial muscles. The sucker also includes inner and outer fibrous connective tissue layers and an array of crossed connective tissue fibers embedded in the musculature. Adhesion results from… 

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