# The String landscape, black holes and gravity as the weakest force

@article{ArkaniHamed2007TheSL, title={The String landscape, black holes and gravity as the weakest force}, author={Nima Arkani-Hamed and Lubo{\vs} Motl and Alberto Nicolis and Cumrun Vafa}, journal={Journal of High Energy Physics}, year={2007}, volume={2007}, pages={060-060} }

We conjecture a general upper bound on the strength of gravity relative to gauge forces in quantum gravity. This implies, in particular, that in a four-dimensional theory with gravity and a U(1) gauge field with gauge coupling g, there is a new ultraviolet scale Λ = gMPl, invisible to the low-energy effective field theorist, which sets a cutoff on the validity of the effective theory. Moreover, there is some light charged particle with mass smaller than or equal to Λ. The bound is motivated by…

## 874 Citations

Weak gravity conjecture, black hole entropy, and modular invariance

- PhysicsJournal of High Energy Physics
- 2019

Abstract
In recent literature, it has been argued that a mild form of the Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) is satisfied by wide classes of effective field theories in which higher-derivative…

Tensionless strings and the weak gravity conjecture

- Physics, MathematicsJournal of High Energy Physics
- 2018

A bstractWe test various conjectures about quantum gravity for six-dimensional string compactifications in the framework of F-theory. Starting with a gauge theory coupled to gravity, we analyze the…

Discrete gauge symmetries and the weak gravity conjecture

- PhysicsJournal of High Energy Physics
- 2019

A bstractIn theories with discrete Abelian gauge groups, requiring that black holes be able to lose their charge as they evaporate leads to an upper bound on the product of a charged particle’s mass…

Infrared consistency and the weak gravity conjecture

- Physics
- 2014

A bstractThe weak gravity conjecture (WGC) asserts that an Abelian gauge theory coupled to gravity is inconsistent unless it contains a particle of charge q and mass m such that q≥m/mPl. This…

Weak Gravity Conjecture from Unitarity and Causality.

- PhysicsPhysical review letters
- 2019

This work demonstrates that heavy extremal black holes can play the role of the required charged state under several assumptions and provides an existence proof of the weak gravity conjecture in a wide class of theories, including generic string theory setups with the dilaton or other moduli stabilized below the string scale.

Instability of Near-Extremal Black Holes Dual to Strongly Coupled Field Theories on Flat Spacetime

- Physics
- 2009

We show that AdS black holes dual to field theories on flat spacetime, as used in applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence to QCD and condensed matter physics, are unstable to non-perturbative…

On the extremality bound of stringy black holes

- PhysicsJournal of High Energy Physics
- 2020

A mild version of the weak gravity conjecture (WGC) states that extremal black holes have charge-to-mass ratio larger or equal than one when higher-curvature interactions are taken into account.…

Merging the weak gravity and distance conjectures using BPS extremal black holes

- Mathematics
- 2020

We analyze the charge-to-mass structure of BPS states in general infinite-distance limits of N $$ \mathcal{N} $$ = 2 compactifications of Type IIB string theory on Calabi-Yau three-folds, and use the…

The Weak Gravity Conjecture and emergence from an ultraviolet cutoff

- PhysicsThe European physical journal. C, Particles and fields
- 2018

It is shown that in theories approximately saturating the sLWGC, the scales at which loop corrections from the tower of charged particles to the gauge boson and graviton propagators become important are parametrically identical, suggesting a picture in which gauge fields emerge from the quantum gravity scale by integrating out a Tower of charged matter fields.

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