The Strategic Use of Gain- and Loss-Framed Messages to Promote Healthy Behavior: How Theory Can Inform Practice

  title={The Strategic Use of Gain- and Loss-Framed Messages to Promote Healthy Behavior: How Theory Can Inform Practice},
  author={Alexander J. Rothman and Roger D. Bartels and Jhon Wlaschin and Peter Salovey},
  journal={Journal of Communication},
Message framing provides a theoretically grounded approach to the development of effective health messages. In this study, we review the state of research and theory on message framing (Rothman & Salovey, 1997), and how it can inform efforts to enhance health practices throughout the cancer care continuum. Gain-framed appeals are more effective when targeting behaviors that prevent the onset of disease, whereas loss-framed appeals are more effective when targeting behaviors that detect the… 

Using Message Framing in Health‐Related Persuasion

This chapter provides a review of theory and evidence concerning the relative persuasiveness of gain- versus loss-framed messages in health contexts, with particular attention to research surrounding

The Role of Theory in Developing Effective Health Communications

This study attempts to show the relevance of behavioral theory for developing communications designed to promote healthy and/or to prevent or alter unhealthy behaviors. After describing an

When the Model Fits the Frame

It is demonstrated that high levels of persuasion occur when a message advertising healthy dietary habits offers a regulatory fit between its framing and the described role model, and that the effects of such internal regulatory fit by vicarious experience depend on individuals’ perceptions of response- efficacy and self-efficacy.

Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? A new investigation of a widely held notion

It is concluded that the empirical evidence in favour of the hypothesis is weak and the ramifications of this for future message framing research are discussed.

Goal framing of health related behaviors: What factors contribute to the persuasiveness of a message?

Goal Framing of Health Related Behaviors: What Factors Contribute to the Persuasiveness of a Message? Sarah A. Stoner There is evidence that the manner in which relevant information is framed can

Examining the Influence of Self-Efficacy on Message-Framing Effects: Reducing Salt Consumption in the General Population

Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the gains associated with healthy behavior or the losses associated with unhealthy behavior. Studies show inconsistent results as to which type of

Self-efficacy moderates message-framing effects: The case of skin-cancer detection

The influence of self-efficacy to perform skin self-examination on the effects of gain- and loss-framed skin-cancer detection messages among 124 university students is examined and suggests that health promoting messages can be framed to match recipients’ self- efficacy levels.

Investigating message-framing effects in the context of a tailored intervention promoting physical activity.

The results showed that gain-framed messages resulted in stronger intentions to be physically active than loss- Framed messages, however, this did not result in a significant increase in actual PA, as measured by a 3-month follow-up assessment.

The Effectiveness of Gain-Framed Messages for Encouraging Disease Prevention Behavior: Is All Hope Lost?

It is suggested that the future of message framing is promising with newly emerging approaches to increasing message effectiveness.



The Systematic Influence of Gain-and Loss-Framed Messages on Interest in and Use of Different Types of Health Behavior

Framing health messages systematically in terms of either gains or losses influences the behaviors that people adopt. Rothman and Salovey proposed that the relative influence of gain-and loss-framed

Shaping perceptions to motivate healthy behavior: the role of message framing.

The authors discuss the cognitive and affective processes that may mediate the influence of framed information on judgment and behavior and the relative effectiveness of gain-framing or loss-framed appeals.

The Influence of Message Framing on Intentions to Perform Health Behaviors

Abstract Prospect Theory proposes that people prefer taking risks to options that are certain when considering losses and prefer certainty to risk when considering gains (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979).

Message Framing and Pap Test Utilization among Women Attending a Community Health Clinic

In a randomized experiment, women (N = 441) watched either a loss- or gain-framed video emphasizing the prevention or detection functions of the Pap test to test the hypothesis that loss- and

The effects of message framing and ethnic targeting on mammography use among low-income women.

  • T. SchneiderP. Salovey A. Rothman
  • Psychology
    Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
  • 2001
The authors examined the effects that differently framed and targeted health messages have on persuading low-income women to obtain screening mammograms and found that loss-framed, multicultural messages were most persuasive.

Message framing and sunscreen use: gain-framed messages motivate beach-goers.

People who read either of the 2 gain-framed brochures were significantly more likely to request sunscreen, intend to repeatedly apply sunscreen while at the beach, and intend to use sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15 or higher.

The effects of message framing on mammography utilization.

  • S. M. BanksP. Salovey E. Epel
  • Medicine
    Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
  • 1995
It is suggested that loss-framed messages may have an advantage in the promotion of detection behaviors such as mammography.

Toward a theory-based analysis of behavioral maintenance.

  • A. Rothman
  • Psychology, Business
    Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
  • 2000
This article reviews how the dominant models of health behavior change have operationalized the psychological processes that guide the initiation and maintenance of a new pattern of behavior and proposes an alternative framework based on the premise that the decision criteria that lead people to initiate a change in their behavior are different from those that lead them to maintain that behavior.

The effect of message framing on breast self-examination attitudes, intentions, and behavior.

Only measures of perceived self-efficacy in performing BSE were differentially affected by the framing manipulation, with loss subjects reporting the greatest levels of self-confidence.

Communicating the Consequences of Early Detection: The Role of Evidence and Framing

Despite the enormous benefits of early-detection products, consumers are reluctant to use them. The authors explore this reluctance, testing alternative approaches to communicating the consequences