The Stomatopod Dactyl Club: A Formidable Damage-Tolerant Biological Hammer

  title={The Stomatopod Dactyl Club: A Formidable Damage-Tolerant Biological Hammer},
  author={James C. Weaver and Garrett W. Milliron and Ali Miserez and Kenneth Evans-Lutterodt and Steven Herrera and Isaias Gallana and William J. Mershon and Brooke A. Swanson and Pablo D. Zavattieri and Elaine DiMasi and David Kisailus},
  pages={1275 - 1280}
Hammering Home the Lesson Stomatopods are marine crustaceans that use hammerlike claws for defense and to attack their prey. The claws undergo repeated high-velocity and high-force impacts. Weaver et al. (p. 1275; see the Perspective by Tanner) used a variety of techniques to examine the structure, mechanical behavior, and toughening mechanisms of the claw of the Peacock Mantis shrimp. The claw's composite structure is optimized for toughness, which helps to prevent the complete failure that… 
The Stomatopod Telson: Convergent Evolution in the Development of a Biological Shield
Mantis shrimp are aggressive marine crustaceans well known for their rapid and powerful hunting strategies. Less well known, however, is the ability of some species of mantis shrimp to defend
Ecologically Driven Ultrastructural and Hydrodynamic Designs in Stomatopod Cuticles
Evidence is provided for the function and substructural exaptation of the striated region, which facilitated redeployment of a raptorial feeding appendage as a biological hammer in the stomatopod dactyl club from the smashing predator O. scyllarus.
Gastropodskeletaldefences: land,freshwater,andseacompared
There has been a sharp rise in the number of defence types and in the degree of antipredatory specialization in marine environments from the Palaeozoic to the Recent, particularly among defences at the subjugation and pursuit phases of attack.
Small But Extremely Tough
The structure of the dactyl club of O. scyllarus is investigated and it is shown that it has a much higher specific strength and toughness than any synthetic composite material.
Structural characterization of the buccal mass of Ariolimax californicus (Gastropoda; Stylommatophora)
The acellular components in the buccal mass of the terrestrial slug Ariolimax californicus (banana slug) are characterized and may aid in the design and fabrication of novel bioinspired materials.
Simple Shape learning of the two Stomatopod SpecieS: haptoSquilla triSpinoSa and pSeudoSquilla ciliata
There is clear visual discriminatory learning capability in this organism that can assist in flexible adaptations, and the total number of responses decreased over time, with an increase in correct responses and decrease in incorrect responses.
Gastropod skeletal defences: land, freshwater, and sea compared
There has been a sharp rise in the number of defence types and in the degree of antipredatory specialization in marine environments from the Palaeozoic to the Recent, particularly among defences at the subjugation and pursuit phases of attack.
The Mantis Shrimp Saddle: A Biological Spring Combining Stiffness and Flexibility
Stomatopods are aggressive crustacean predators that use a pair of ultrafast raptorial appendages to strike on prey. This swift movement is driven by a power amplification system comprising


The phylogeny of the stomatopod Crustacea
The present analysis suggests that the Unipeltata diverged in two broad directions from the outset, so the gonodactyloid ‘smashers’ became specialised for hard substrates, and the remainder diversified into the other modern superfamilies, evolving more efficient ‘spearing’ claws, and occupying soft substrates.
Ecology and evolution of agonistic behavior in stomatopods
Within a group of species from one habitat, the most aggressive is usually the most abundant, suggesting contest competition.
A cladistic analysis of all known Paleozoic Palaeostomatopoda reveals a series of stem-group proto-mantis shrimp that lead to the crown-group Unipeltata Latreille, 1825.
Calcified cuticle in the stomatopod smashing limb
One pair of limbs of the mantid shrimp, Gonodactylus, is used to smash hard-shelled prey. The composition and structural features of the cuticle allowing this were examined by microhardness testing,
The Structure and Calcification of the Crustacean Cuticle
Control of crystal organization is a complex phenomenon unrelated to the gross morphology of the matrix in decapod crustaceans and in two species of crabs studied to date these movements are accomplished by active transport effected by a Ca-ATPase and Na/Ca exchange mechanism.
Extreme impact and cavitation forces of a biological hammer: strike forces of the peacock mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus
The surprising finding that each strike generates two brief, high-amplitude force peaks, typically 390–480 μs apart, suggests that mantis shrimp use a potent combination of cavitation forces and extraordinarily high impact forces to fracture shells.
Scaling and modularity in the powerful predatory appendages of a mantis shrimp, Gonodactylaceus falcatus, are examined to indicate that each functional unit belongs to different developmental modules in a power‐amplified system, potentially allowing independent evolution of the engine, amplifier, and tool.
Ritualized fighting and biological armor: the impact mechanics of the mantis shrimp's telson
The mechanical infrastructure of impact resistance in biological armor is revealed and a new window to the biomechanical underpinnings of animal behavior and assessment is opened.
Molting in stomatopod crustaceans. I. Stages of the molt cycle, setagenesis, and morphology
  • M. Reaka
  • Biology
    Journal of morphology
  • 1975
The description of stages of the molt cycle in mantis shrimp includes data on texture, hardness, and color of the exoskeleton; behavior; and the micromorphology of the integument and developing setae.