The Stellarator Concept

  title={The Stellarator Concept},
  author={L. Jr. Spitzer},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science},
  • L. Spitzer
  • Published 1 July 1958
  • Physics
  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
The basic concepts of the controlled thermonuclear program at Project Matterhorn, Princeton University are discussed. In particular, the theory of confinement of a fully ionized gas in the magnetic configuration of the stellarator is given, the theories of heating are outlined, and the bearing of observational results on these theories is described.Magnetic confinement in the stellarator is based on a strong magnetic field produced by solenoidal coils encircling a toroidal tube. The… 
Magnetic configuration effects on the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator
The two leading concepts for confining high-temperature fusion plasmas are the tokamak and the stellarator. Tokamaks are rotationally symmetric and use a large plasma current to achieve confinement,
Stellarators. Present Status and Future Planning
The stellarator is a closed toroidal device designed to confine a hot plasma In a ma­ gnetic field. It is one of the oldest concepts to have been investigated in the search for controlled
Theory of advanced stellarators
The main features of advanced stellarators are the optimized coil system which can be extrapolated to reactor size, improved properties of plasma equilibrium with reduced Shafranov shift and a
Preliminary results on the equilibrium position in a figure-eight stellarator with variable rotational transform
To investigate how torsion of a magnetic axis influences the equilibrium of high beta plasmas the authors have built a figure-eight stellarator consisting of four half tori. The connection angles of
Curl-free magnetic fields for stellarator optimization
This paper describes a new and efficient method of defining an annular region of a curl-free magnetic field with specific physics and coil properties that can be used in stellarator design. Three
The theoretical basis of a drift-optimized stellarator reactor
The stellarator is a 3-dimensional toroidal configuration without induced toroidal plasma currents. The magnetic field is produced by external coils which allows steady-state operation of a
An introduction to symmetries in stellarators
The field of plasma physics is broad, with applications in astrophysical and solar phenomena, laser experiments, electronics, and nuclear fusion. Rather than provide a comprehensive introduction to
Confirmation of the topology of the Wendelstein 7-X magnetic field to better than 1:100,000
The first physics results are shown, obtained before plasma operation: that the carefully tailored topology of nested magnetic surfaces needed for good confinement is realized, and that the measured deviations are smaller than one part in 100,000.
Theory of plasma confinement in non-axisymmetric magnetic fields.
  • P. Helander
  • Physics, Medicine
    Reports on progress in physics. Physical Society
  • 2014
The mathematical apparatus to describe stellarator plasmas is developed from first principles and basic elements underlying confinement optimization are introduced.
Control of non-axisymmetric toroidal plasmas
The control of non-axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, stellarators, has a different character than the control of tokamaks for two reasons. Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields (1) can provide an arbitrarily


The Divertor, a Device for Reducing the Impurity Level in a Stellarator
A divertor, designed to reduce the flow of impurities from the wall into a gas discharge, has been used with a small stellarator. In the divertor an outer shell of magnetic flux is bent away from the
Controlled Fusion Research-An Application of the Physics of High Temperature Plasmas
  • R. Post
  • Physics
    Proceedings of the IRE
  • 1957
Some of the long-range implications and advantages of achieving the production of power from controlled fusion reactions between isotopes of hydrogen, helium, and lithium are set forth. The physical
On the Ionization and Ohmic Heating of a Helium Plasma
A method which is used for the ionization and heating of helium plasmas in various stellarator models consists of inducing an approximately constant electric field along the main axial confining
Heating of a Confined Plasma by Oscillating Electromagnetic Fields
There are two ways of heating a plasma confined by a strong axial magnetic field. In the first of these the electric field is parallel to the magnetic field, the situation that obtains in ohmic
Equilibrium of a Magnetically Confined Plasma in a Toroid
A variety of properties are derived satisfied by any static equilibrium of a plasma governed by the well‐known magnetostatic equations. Some of these are local and quite trivial. Others involve
Generation and Thermalization of Plasma Waves
Generation of hydromagnetic and ion cyclotron waves by an induction coil is considered for a cylindrical plasma in a uniform confining magnetic field. Resonance widths are calculated and power
``Runaway'' Electrons and Cooperative Phenomena in B-1 Stellarator Discharges
Examination of the temporal distribution, relative intensity, and maximum energy of x‐rays above 30 kev emanating from the B‐1 stellarator during a pulsed discharge has revealed a number of
An energy principle for hydromagnetic stability problems
The problem of the stability of static, highly conducting, fully ionized plasmas is investigated by means of an energy principle developed from one introduced by Lundquist. The derivation of the
The Boltzmann equation an d the one-fluid hydromagnetic equations in the absence of particle collisions
  • G. Chew, M. Goldberger, F. Low
  • Physics
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1956
Starting from the Boltzmann equation for a completely ionized dilute gas with no interparticle collision term but a strong Lorentz force, an attempt is made to obtain one-fluid hydromagnetic
Der Gyro-Relaxations-Effekt
Es wird gezeigt, daß ständig eine Relaxation der Freiheitsgrade der Bewegung entlang den magnetischen Feldlinien relativ zu den Freiheitsgraden der Umlaufsbewegueg um diese magnetischen Feldlinien