A statistical investigation shows that the Drake equation delivers robust predictions of the likelihood that the prevalent form of intelligence in the universe is artificial rather than biological, which far exceeds the likelihood of biological intelligence.Expand

Abstract The number N of detectable (i.e. communicating) extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy is usually calculated by using the Drake equation. This equation was established in… Expand

Abstract We use recent results from astrobiology, particularly the A-form of the Drake equation and combine it with data on the evolution of life on Earth to obtain a new assessment of the prevalence… Expand

The Drake Equation has proven fertile ground for speculation about the abundance, or lack thereof, of communicating extraterrestrial intelligences (CETIs) for decades. It has been augmented by… Expand

I. INTRODUCING LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE 1. A Universe of Life? 2. The Science of Life in the Universe 3. The Universal Context of Life II. LIFE ON EARTH 4 The Habitability of Earth 5. The Nature of Life… Expand

This chapter discusses the concept of a Random Variable, the meaning of Probability, and the axioms of probability in terms of Markov Chains and Queueing Theory.Expand