The State of the Art in Cartograms

  title={The State of the Art in Cartograms},
  author={Sabrina Nusrat and Stephen G. Kobourov},
  journal={Computer Graphics Forum},
Cartograms combine statistical and geographical information in thematic maps, where areas of geographical regions (e.g., countries, states) are scaled in proportion to some statistic (e.g., population, income). Cartograms make it possible to gain insight into patterns and trends in the World around us and have been very popular visualizations for geo‐referenced data for over a century. This Work surveys cartogram research in visualization, cartography and geometry, covering a broad spectrum of… 

Evaluating Cartogram Effectiveness

This work evaluates four major types of cartograms: contiguous, non-contiguous, rectangular, and Dorling cartograms based on a recent task taxonomy for cartograms.


This work evaluates four major types of cartograms: contiguous, non-contiguous, rectangular, and Dorling cartograms based on a recent task taxonomy for cartograms.

Cartogram Visualization for Bivariate Geo-Statistical Data

Bivariate cartograms make it easy to find more geographic patterns and outliers in a pre-attentive way than previous approaches, and are most effective for showing two variables from the same domain, although they can also be used for variables from different domains.

Cartograms with Topological Features

The goal is to include topological features such as a river in a Dorling-style or rectangular cartogram to make the visual layout more recognizable, increase map cognition and reduce geospatial error.

The State of the Art in Map‐Like Visualization

An overview of the literature on map‐like visualization is given and a hierarchical classification of existing techniques along two general perspectives is provided: imitation and schematization of cartographic maps.

Visualizing France with Cartograms

France has a long tradition of using statistical (choropleth) maps, which use shading to represent the spatial distribution of a variable, such as population, by department. Such maps lead the

Designing Cartogram Maps of the Morphological Stages of Fallujah City Between 1870 and 1940, Using Geographic Techniques

This paper attempts to use the concept of cartography to review the morphological stages the city experienced for the period (1870-1940). In particular, this study uses three-dimensional volumetric

Fast flow-based algorithm for creating density-equalizing map projections

A flow-based algorithm whose equations of motion are numerically easier to solve compared with previous methods is introduced, allowing straightforward parallelization so that the calculation takes only a few seconds even for complex and detailed input.

Recognition and Recall of Geographic Data In Cartograms

Results indicate that Dorling cartograms are associated with better recall of general patterns and trends, which has implications for the design and use of cartograms, in the context of memorability.

Multicriteria Optimization for Dynamic Demers Cartograms

This work presents a method to compute stable stable Demers cartograms, where each region is shown as a square scaled proportionally to the given numerical data and similar data yield similar cartograms.



Evaluating Cartogram Effectiveness

This work evaluates four major types of cartograms: contiguous, non-contiguous, rectangular, and Dorling cartograms based on a recent task taxonomy for cartograms.

Task Taxonomy for Cartograms

This paper considers a set of cartogram visualization tasks, based on standard taxonomies from cartography and information visualization, and proposes a cartogram task taxonomy that can be used to organize not only the tasks considered here but also other tasks that might be added later.

Effectiveness of Cartogram for the Representation of Spatial Data

Abstract Cartogram is a technique for visualisation of the geographical distribution of spatial data. It has two main types, i.e. distance cartogram and area cartogram. Area cartogram is a

Quantitative Measures for Cartogram Generation Techniques

A set of seven quantitative measures is defined, designed to evaluate how faithfully a cartogram represents the desired weights and to estimate the readability of the final representation.

Visualizing Geographic Information: VisualPoints vs CartoDraw

This paper compares two algorithms that solve the continuous cartogram problem based on the Gridfit technique, which uses pixel-based distortion based on a quadtree-like data structure to make continuous cartograms that strictly retain the topology of the input mesh.

CartoDraw: a fast algorithm for generating contiguous cartograms

An efficient iterative scanline algorithm to reposition edges while preserving local and global shapes and a shape similarity function, which is based on a Fourier transformation of the polygons' curvatures are proposed.

RecMap: Rectangular Map Approximations

A novel visualization technique for geospatial data sets called RecMap, which approximates a rectangular partition of the (rectangular) display area into a number of map regions preserving important geosp spatial constraints, and is a fully automatic technique with explicit user control over all exploration constraints within the exploration process.

Optimal BSPs and rectilinear cartograms

An algorithm for constructing rectilinear cartograms with zero cartographic error and correct region adjacencies is presented, and this algorithm works for a general class of optimality criteria, including size and depth.

Thematic Cartography and Geographic Visualization

1. Introduction. I. PRINCIPLES OF CARTOGRAPHY. 2. History of Thematic Cartography. 3. Statistical and Graphical Foundation. 4. Principles of Symbolization. 5. Data Classification. 6. Scale and

Mosaic Drawings and Cartograms

This work proposes the first fully automated method to construct mosaic cartograms: cartograms that use multiples of simple tiles – usually squares or hexagons – to represent regions, and introduces mosaic drawings of triangulated planar graphs.