The Southern Urals radiation studies

@article{Kellerer2002TheSU,
  title={The Southern Urals radiation studies},
  author={Albrecht M. Kellerer},
  journal={Radiation and Environmental Biophysics},
  year={2002},
  volume={41},
  pages={307-316}
}
  • A. Kellerer
  • Published 21 November 2002
  • Environmental Science, Medicine
  • Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Abstract. In the late 1940s and early 1950s the nuclear workers of the Mayak Production Association in the Southern Urals were exposed to high doses from γ-rays and from incorporated plutonium. In addition, the population of the Techa riverside downstream of the plutonium-production sites received continued exposures from external γ-rays due to fission products released into the river and from the internal radiation due to incorporation of the fission products. Based on two international… 
Reconstruction of the radionuclide spectrum of liquid radioactive waste released into the Techa river in 1949–1951
  • Y. Mokrov
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Radiation and environmental biophysics
  • 2003
TLDR
The results of the analysis confirm the conclusion that the external doses to the Techa river residents in the critical period up to 1952 were predominantly due to short-lived fission products.
Individual doses for super cohort members exposed to atmospheric radioiodine from the Mayak releases with an emphasis on prenatal doses.
Time-dependent thyroid doses were reconstructed for 45,837 members of the Southern Urals Population Exposed to Radiation Cohort (SUPER-C) living in the region around the Mayak Production Association
On an evaluation of external dose values in the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS) 2000
TLDR
The resulting distribution for the gamma dose accumulated in the period 1949–1956 at the Techa river shore has a median value of 32 Gy with a 95% confidence interval of 21–45 Gy and confirms the corresponding value of 26.6 Gy that is used in the TRDS System (TRDS) 2000.
Calculations of individual doses for Techa River Cohort members exposed to atmospheric radioiodine from Mayak releases.
TLDR
Time-dependent thyroid doses were reconstructed for over 29,000 Techa River Cohort members living near the Mayak production facilities from 131I released to the atmosphere for all relevant exposure pathways and the uncertainty in the 131I dose estimates is low enough for this approach to be used in regional epidemiological studies.
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TLDR
The results of an effort to evaluate anthropogenic doses in bricks from old buildings located on the banks of the Techa River demonstrate that the luminescence method allowed reconstruction of the anthropogenic dose distribution in the former settlement center.
TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM : CURRENT STATUS AND THE FUTURE
The Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS) has been developed to provide estimates of external and internal doses for residents living on the Techa River, which was contaminated as a result of
Radioactive contamination in the upper part of the Techa river: stirring-up of bottom sediments and precipitation of suspended particles
  • Y. Mokrov
  • Environmental Science, Medicine
    Radiation and environmental biophysics
  • 2004
TLDR
The conclusion that the largest part of the activity was adsorbed on the suspended particles contradicts the assumption in the Techa river dosimetry system, TRDS-2000, that most of the released activity entered thetecha river in soluble form.
Hormesis, an update of the present position
  • L. Johansson
  • Medicine
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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The results of new radiobiological research indicate the need for a paradigm shift concerning the mechanisms of cancer induction, a step towards a better understanding of how ionising radiation affects the living cell and the organism, and towards a more reliable judgement on how to interpret the present radiobiologically evidence for hormesis.
Two-Mutation Models for Bone Cancer due to Radium, Strontium and Plutonium
TLDR
Results for plutonium indicate that rapid burial of the nuclide in the growing bones of juvenile beagles leads to a significant reduction of its toxicity, as was suggested previously, and results for radium in beagles compare well with those for humans and suggest that the models derived for strontium and plutonium inBeagles may be translated to humans.
EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel: A review.
  • P. Fattibene, F. Callens
  • Materials Science, Medicine
    Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine
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A critical review is given of this widely applied dosimetric method based on the (presumed) correlation between the intensity or amplitude of some of the radiation-induced signals with the dose absorbed in the enamel.
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References

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Issues in the comparison of risk estimates for the population in the Techa River region and atomic bomb survivors.
TLDR
The Techa River cohort has the potential to provide quantitative estimates of the risks of chronic low-dose-rate radiation exposures for an unselected general population that will be an important complement to the estimates based on the Life Span Study that are used as the primary basis for numerical assessments of radiation risk.
The Techa River dosimetry system: methods for the reconstruction of internal dose.
TLDR
Organ doses are being reconstructed on the basis of derivation of an historical source term and a simple river model used to simulate the transport of radionuclides downstream and their retention on sediments; measurements of 90Sr content in teeth and the whole body of half of the members of the cohort; and development of the "Techa River Dosimetry System" for computation of the doses.
Studies on the Mayak nuclear workers: dosimetry
TLDR
Assessments based on a set of techniques for measuring plutonium in biological material and to develop a biokinetic model of plutonium transport and excretion in the human body revealed an excess of permissible levels in many cases.
Studies on the Techa river populations: dosimetry
The combined dosimetric and epidemiologic study of the Extended Techa River Cohort (ETRC) is deemed important, as this cohort is one of a very few that can be studied to examine the question of
Studies on the Ozyorsk population: dosimetry
TLDR
This (unfunded) project is reconstruction of the time-dependent individual radiation doses to residents of Ozyorsk and the surrounding area from atmospheric releases of radionuclides from the facilities of the Mayak Production Association from 1948 to the present.
Reconstruction of radionuclide contamination of the Techa River caused by liquid waste discharge from radiochemical production at the Mayak Production Association.
TLDR
The pilot study indicated that it is possible to determine the historical releases of a wider suite of radionuclides using the historical monitoring data from numerous locations along the river, rather than relying on a more uncertain reconstruction of quantities released at the point of discharge.
Studies on the extended Techa river cohort: cancer risk estimation
TLDR
Analysis of the Techa river cohort can provide useful quantitative estimates of the effects of low dose rate, chronic external and internal exposures on cancer mortality and incidence and non-cancer mortality rates and complement quantitative risk estimates for acute exposures based on the atomic bomb survivors and chronic exposure risk estimates from worker studies.
Retrospective dosimetry related to chronic environmental exposure.
TLDR
The analysis of data on 90Sr in humans is presented and the reconstruction of internal doses for these people are described.
Lung cancer risk due to exposure to incorporated plutonium.
TLDR
An epidemiological study has been carried out among 1,479 male workers who started working at the "Mayak" Production Association in 1948-1958 and were exposed to external gamma radiation and plutonium aerosols, and association of lung cancer mortality and the dose of alpha-particle radiation to the lung is statistically significant.
Lung cancer in nuclear workers of Mayak
TLDR
Principal aim of this study has been the comparison to methods used in the earlier cohort analysis, and no evidence for a departure from linearity in dose response was suggested.
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