The Southern Route “Out of Africa”: Evidence for an Early Expansion of Modern Humans into Arabia

  title={The Southern Route “Out of Africa”: Evidence for an Early Expansion of Modern Humans into Arabia},
  author={Simon J. Armitage and Sabah Abboud Jasim and Anthony Marks and Adrian G. Parker and Vitaly I. Usik and Hans-Peter Uerpmann},
  pages={453 - 456}
Artifacts in eastern Arabia dating to 100,000 years ago imply that modern humans left Africa early, as climate fluctuated. The timing of the dispersal of anatomically modern humans (AMH) out of Africa is a fundamental question in human evolutionary studies. Existing data suggest a rapid coastal exodus via the Indian Ocean rim around 60,000 years ago. We present evidence from Jebel Faya, United Arab Emirates, demonstrating human presence in eastern Arabia during the last interglacial. The tool… 
Genetic and archaeological perspectives on the initial modern human colonization of southern Asia
This work presents an alternative model based on a combination of genetic analyses and recent archaeological evidence from South Asia and Africa that supports a coastally oriented dispersal of modern humans from eastern Africa to southern Asia ∼60–50 thousand years ago (ka).
Upper Pleistocene Human Dispersals out of Africa: A Review of the Current State of the Debate
  • Amanuel Beyin
  • Environmental Science
    International journal of evolutionary biology
  • 2011
The reviewed literature hints at two modes of early modern human colonization of Eurasia in the Upper Pleistocene: from multiple Homo sapiens source populations that had entered Arabia, South Asia, and the Levant prior to and soon after the onset of the Last Interglacial (MIS-5).
Humid periods in southern Arabia: Windows of opportunity for modern human dispersal
Arabia is a key area for the dispersal of anatomically modern humans (AMH, Homo sapiens) out of Africa. Given its modern hostile environment, the question of the timing of dispersal is also a
A climatic context for the out-of-Africa migration
Around 200,000 yr ago, Homo sapiens emerged in Africa. By 40 ka, Homo sapiens had spread throughout Eurasia, and a major competing species, the Neanderthals, became extinct. The factors that drove
The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: An African Middle Stone Age Industry in Southern Arabia
Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ∼106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5.
Human footprints provide snapshot of last interglacial ecology in the Arabian interior
It is concluded that visitation to the lake was transient, likely serving as a place to drink and to forage, and that late Pleistocene human and mammalian migrations and landscape use patterns in Arabia were inexorably linked.
Homo sapiens in Arabia by 85,000 years ago
Al Wusta shows that early H. sapiens dispersals out of Africa were not limited to winter rainfall-fed Levantine Mediterranean woodlands immediately adjacent to Africa, but extended deep into the semi-arid grasslands of Arabia, facilitated by periods of enhanced monsoonal rainfall.
Human occupation of the northern Arabian interior during early Marine Isotope Stage 3
The early part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (ca. 60–50 ka) is a crucial period for studying human demography and behaviour in south‐west Asia, and how these relate to climatic changes. However,
An early MIS 3 pluvial phase in Southeast Arabia: Climatic and archaeological implications


Genetic evidence of an early exit of Homo sapiens sapiens from Africa through eastern Africa
M is rendered the first genetic indicator for the hypothesized exit route from Africa through eastern Africa/western India, possibly the only successful early dispersal event of modern humans out of Africa.
Why did modern human populations disperse from Africa ca. 60,000 years ago? A new model.
  • P. Mellars
  • Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2006
It is suggested here that the answer to why it took these populations approximately 100,000 years to disperse from Africa to other regions of the world has never been clearly resolved may lie partly in the results of recent DNA studies of present-day African populations, combined with a spate of new archaeological discoveries in Africa.
Getting “Out of Africa”: Sea Crossings, Land Crossings and Culture in the Hominin Migrations
Palaeoanthropologists and archaeologists have advanced a wide range of explanatory narratives for the various movements of Homo erectus/Homo ergaster, and the first modern Homo sapiens, “Out of
Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia
The preferred estimate of the age of the Kibish hominids is 195 ± 5 kyr, making them the earliest well-dated anatomically modern humans yet described, and close to the older limit of Mediterranean sapropels.
A vast Eemian palaeolake in Southern Jordan (29°N)
Did Early Humans Go North or South?
Two new studies of the mitochondrial DNA of the indigenous peoples of Malaysia and the Andaman islands suggest that the earliest humans took a southern route along the coastline of the Indian Ocean before fanning out over the rest of the world.
Middle Paleolithic Assemblages from the Indian Subcontinent Before and After the Toba Super-Eruption
Broad continuity of Middle Paleolithic technology across the YTT event suggests that hominins persisted regionally across this major eruptive event.