The Southern Ming, 1644-1662

@article{Struve1985TheSM,
  title={The Southern Ming, 1644-1662},
  author={Lynn A. Struve},
  journal={The Journal of Asian Studies},
  year={1985},
  volume={44},
  pages={824 - 825}
}
  • L. Struve
  • Published 1 August 1985
  • History
  • The Journal of Asian Studies
THE HUNG-KUANG REGIME As rebel forces overran Shansi, Pei Chihli, and Shantung in the spring of 1644, communications between north and south China were severely disrupted. Confusion, dilatoriness, and lack of direction prevailed among Ming military authorities south of the Yellow River. Most of the regular personnel along the usual postal and transport routes had abandoned their stations, and roads were clogged with refugees who brought southward pestilence, hysteria, enemy agents, and alarming… 

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