The Southampton system: a new universal standard approach for port-city classification

@article{Roberts2020TheSS,
  title={The Southampton system: a new universal standard approach for port-city classification},
  author={Toby Roberts and Ian D. Williams and John Preston},
  journal={Maritime Policy \& Management},
  year={2020},
  volume={48},
  pages={530 - 542}
}
ABSTRACT The most widely-used current system for classifying port-cities is limited to container ports, excluding other types of cargo and passengers. This limits the usefulness of research findings and policy recommendations. A new system is proposed that includes passengers and all cargo types. In order to compare passenger numbers with cargo, the weight of ships from a sample of recent ship calls to Southampton was used to calculate the average cargo tonnage and passengers per tonne of ship… 
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