The Sociotropy–Autonomy Scale: Structure and Implications

  title={The Sociotropy–Autonomy Scale: Structure and Implications},
  author={Peter J. Bieling and Aaron T. Beck and Gregory K Brown},
  journal={Cognitive Therapy and Research},
The Sociotropy Autonomy Scale (SAS), especially the Autonomy Scale, has demonstrated inconsistent results concerning its relationship to depression and psychopathology. We hypothesized that these inconsistent findings may be related to the factor structure of the SAS. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the SAS were conducted in two separate samples of psychiatric outpatients (n = 1033, n = 1034). The results revealed a two-factor solution for sociotropy: Preference for Affiliation… 

Sociotropy and Autonomy: The Nature of Vulnerability

  • Toru Sato
  • Psychology
    The Journal of psychology
  • 2003
An examination of the relationship between the two Sociotropy-Autonomy scales and an attempt to specify the various factors that emerge when the items of the 2 scales are integrated are examined.

Stability and Change of Sociotropy and Autonomy Subscales in Cognitive Therapy of Depression

Sociotropy and autonomy have been demonstrated to be a diathesis for depression as well as predictors of treatment outcome. There are few studies, however, that have investigated whether these

A Short Form of the Autonomy Scale: Properties of the Autonomy–Connectedness Scale (ACS–30)

The psychometric properties of the ACS–30 suggest it can be used to assess gender-linked autonomy and has the advantage of being more economical and simple as compared with the original 50-item version.

Integrating adult attachment scales and vulnerability factors in depression

The factorial structure of a combined set of items about adult attachment orientation and depressive personality vulnerabilities was examined. By employing exploratory and confirmatory factor

Sociotropy–autonomy and interpersonal problems

Results suggested that sociotropic individuals are overly nurturant to non close others but vindictive to individuals who are close to them, and autonomous individuals were found to be domineering to nonclose others but socially avoidant toward people close tothem.

The role of autonomy–connectedness in depression and anxiety

Regression analyses showed that both ( low) Self‐Awareness and (high) Sensitivity to Others predicted depression, as well as anxiety; also, (low) educational level had predictive value.

Autonomy-connectedness mediates sex differences in symptoms of psychopathology

Treatment of depression, anxiety, but also eating disorders and the antisocial personality disorder may benefit from a stronger focus on autonomy strengthening.

The Role of Depressogenic Personality and Attachment in the Intergenerational Similarity of Depressive Symptoms: A Study With Early Adolescents and Their Mothers

Results in a sample of early adolescents and their mothers show significant intergenerational similarity in both sets of vulnerabilities, which was found to account for the association between mothers’ and children’s depressive symptoms.

Stability of negative self-structures: a longitudinal comparison of depressed, remitted, and nonpsychiatric controls.

  • D. Dozois
  • Psychology
    Journal of clinical psychology
  • 2007
Cognitive organization of positive and negative interpersonal and achievement content in clinically depressed, remitted, and nonpsychiatric controls and the structure of relational schemas appears to be stable and may be an important cognitive vulnerability factor for depression.

A Daily Life Comparison of Sociotropy-Autonomy and Hopelessness Theories of Depression

The hopelessness theory and Beck’s cognitive theory of depression were compared, controlling for other factors associated with mood change and stress reactivity. Using a high-risk design, 179



Personality factors in dysphoria: A psychometric refinement of beck's Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale

The Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale (SAS) was developed as a means of assessing two cognitive-personality constructs postulated as vulnerability factors in depression (Beck, 1983). While studies have

Positive and negative aspects of sociotropy and autonomy

The predictions of cognitive theory of depression with regard to personality modes have not been consistently supported. One explanation is that theoretical attention has been unduly centered on

The relationship of sociotropy and autonomy to symptoms, cognition and personality in depressed patients.

Vulnerability factors in depression: The facets of sociotropy and autonomy

Sociotropy-autonomy (Beck, 1983) describes a set of personality dimensions that relate to an individual's vulnerability to depression. Two recently developed scales, the Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale

Personality Vulnerability, Psychiatric Diagnoses, and Symptoms: Cluster Analyses of the Sociotropy-Autonomy Subscales

To determine whether psychiatric outpatients represented distinct personality types with respect to sociotropy and autonomy, the Sociotropy and Autonomy Scale (SAS; Beck, Epstein, Harrison, & Emery,

The personal style inventory: Preliminary validation studies of new measures of sociotropy and autonomy

We conducted five studies with depressed patients, demographically matched controls, and college students to develop and psychometrically evaluate new measures of concerns about interpersonal

Measures of depressive dimensions: are they interchangeable?

The relations within and among these three pairs of scales showed substantial convergent and discriminant validity, and neither scale was closely related to the SAS-Autonomy scale, which appeared to be a better measure of counter dependency than a measure of self-critical, introjective features.

Daily hassles, major and minor life events, and their interaction with sociotropy and autonomy.

Relationship of dependency and achievement/autonomy to depression

Connectedness and Neediness: Factors of the DEQ and SAS dependency scales

Separate and combined factor analyses of the dependency scales of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) and the Sociotropy/Autonomy Scale (SAS) each yielded a factor characterized by valuing