The Social Structure of Time: Emerging Trends and New Directions

  title={The Social Structure of Time: Emerging Trends and New Directions},
  author={Benjamin Cornwell and Jonathan Gershuny and Oriel Sullivan},
  journal={Annual Review of Sociology},
Research on time use has seen several major developments in recent years. These include the adoption of exciting new technologies (e.g., smartphones, wearable Global Positioning System devices) that track behavior in real time, as well as a growing international database—the Multinational Time Use Study—that has surpassed one million days’ worth of harmonized time-diary data. These developments are transforming our understanding of the social patterning of everyday behavior. This article… 

Figures from this paper

Time use diary design for our times - an overview, presenting a Click-and-Drag Diary Instrument (CaDDI) for online application
The recent global pandemic, involving restrictions on movement, social distancing and the displacement of many work activities to the home, has created an upsurge of interest in changes in the
A new perspective from time use research on the effects of social restrictions on COVID-19 behavioral infection risk.
Findings from three waves of a population-representative, UK time-use diary survey conducted both pre- and in real time during full 'lockdown', and again following the easing of social restrictions, show clear changes in risk-associated behavior between the pre, full-lockdown and post full-locksdown periods.
Contour of the Day: Social Patterning of Time in Later Life and Variation in Reported Well-Being in Activities
To contextualize experiences of activities during the day and investigate whether the contour of the day is correlated with well-being during activities, sequence and cluster analyses are employed to create distinct typologies of daily life patterns and bivariate analyses are used to describe whetherWell-being across activities varies by these typologies.
Data Quality in Web and App Diaries: A Person-Level Comparison
The time-use diary is a complex and burdensome data collection instrument. This can negatively affect data quality, leading to less detailed and/or inaccurate activity reporting as the surveyed time
A new perspective from time use research on the effects of lockdown on COVID-19 behavioral infection risk
We present findings from the first two waves of an innovative, population-representative, UK time-use diary survey conducted both pre- and mid-lockdown, using an online diary instrument that proved
The Paradox of Time: Work, Family, Conflict, and the Social Construction of Time
ABSTRACT Today’s employees work longer hours and face constraints from nonstandard, rotating, or unpredictable schedules. Even when they are home, employees are often tethered to their jobs by
Interpersonal Perception of Time-Use Patterns in Romantic Relationships: Protocol for the IP-COUPLES Study (Preprint)
BACKGROUND Perceptual congruence has been defined as the level of agreement between partners on various aspects of their shared lives, including perceived engagement in individual and jointly
“Women’s Work”: Welfare State Spending and the Gendered and Classed Dimensions of Unpaid Care
This study is the first to explicitly assess the connections between welfare state spending and the gendered and classed dimensions of unpaid care work across 29 European nations. Our research uses
Interpersonal Perception of Time-Use Patterns in Romantic Relationships: Protocol for the IP-COUPLES Study
By investigating the interpersonal perception of time-use patterns among couples, the IP-COUPLES study is an important first step to understanding how romantic partners’ daily activities are contributing to the level of satisfaction as a partner and as a couple and to the sense of mutuality between partners in a romantic relationship.
Exploring daily time-use patterns: ATUS-X data extractor and online diary visualization tool
The ATUS-X diary visualization tool is introduced that aims to address the accessibility issue and expand the user base of time-use data by providing users with opportunity to quickly visualize their own subsamples of the American Time Use Survey Data Extractor (AT US-X).


Patterns of everyday activities across social contexts
Using sequence analysis methods to identify and describe common patterns with regard to how individuals sequence their everyday activities—like working, eating, and traveling—during the course of the day, this study identifies eight common behavioral sequence patterns.
Speed-Up Society? Evidence from the UK 2000 and 2015 Time Use Diary Surveys
Using time diary evidence on change in the frequency and distribution of activities from UK time diary data over the 15 years from the turn of the 21st century, we assess whether the thesis of ‘the
Daily Temporal Pathways: A Latent Class Approach to Time Diary Data
This analysis highlights the variations and similarities across pathways, the impact of paid work in structuring daily life, the social patterning of sleep and leisure, and socio-demographic profiles of the pathways of working-age Americans.
A short history of time use research; implications for public health
TUR provides new methods for examining public health research questions where a temporal dimension is important, and can be used for examining the effects of some large public health interventions or policies within and between countries.
Time Waits for no (Wo)Man: An Investigation of the Gendered Experience of Domestic Time
Quite a lot is already known from the existing sociological literature about the overall time spent by women and men in different domestic tasks, but there is much less information available on more
Statistical properties of longitudinal time-activity data for use in human exposure modeling
The results of a four-season longitudinal time-activity diary study in eight working adults are presented, with the goal of improving the parameterization of human activity algorithms in EPA’s exposure modeling efforts.
Gender, Time and Inequality: Trends in Women's and Men's Paid Work, Unpaid Work and Free Time
This analysis uses nationally representative time diary data from 1965, 1975 and 1998 to examine trends and gender differences in time use. Women continue to do more household labor than men;
The duration and dynamics of leisure among the working population in Poland. A time-use approach
Social differentiation in leisure time-use patterns has been found in many developed countries with long-standing capitalist traditions. Thus far, however, little is known about the countries with
In Search of the Harried Leisure Class in Contemporary Society: Time-Use Surveys and Patterns of Leisure Time Consumption
In trying to understand the contemporary work-leisure paradoxes, we go in search for today’s harried leisure class and its equanimous counterpart. We apply the relative new method of optimal matching
Sleep as a victim of the “time crunch” – A multinational analysis
The major predictors of sleep time in US and Canada are work hours and, increasingly, education, and the US-Canada finding that women sleep slightly more than men is mainly a reflection of these two predictors.