The Social Construction of School Punishment: Racial Disadvantage Out of Universalistic Process

  title={The Social Construction of School Punishment: Racial Disadvantage Out of Universalistic Process},
  author={John D. McCarthy and Dean R. Hoge},
  journal={Social Forces},
Black adolescents are much more likely to run afoul of the juvenile justice system than are similar white adolescents, even though the two groups self-report similar rates of offending. Within public schools we find the same differential pattern. Using three waves of longitudinal data collected in schools we evaluate several explanations for the disparity. The greater rates of punishment for blacks occur as a consequence of teachers' perceptions of the students' behavior, their knowledge of… 
Racial Threat and Punitive School Discipline
Tests of the racial threat hypothesis, linking the racial composition of place to various measures of social control, find that where there are greater percentages of blacks, more punitive criminal
The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment
The disproportionate discipline of African-American students has been extensively documented; yet the reasons for those disparities are less well understood. Drawing upon one year of middle-school
Alternate Realities: Racially Disparate Discipline in Classrooms and Schools and Its Effects on Black and Brown Students.
This study examines the Civil Rights Data Collection of 2014, consisting of 49,605,534 students from 95,635 public schools covering grades from Kindergarten to 12 grade. The primary focus of this
Do Black students misbehave more? Investigating the differential involvement hypothesis and out-of-school suspensions
ABSTRACT Black students are much more likely to be disciplined using out-of-school suspensions (OSS) compared with White students. One often-cited hypothesis, though relatively untested, is the role
Race Is Not Neutral: A National Investigation of African American and Latino Disproportionality in School Discipline
Abstract. Discipline practices in schools affect the social quality of each educational environment, and the ability of children to achieve the academic and social gains essential for success in a
It is clear that schools are mirroring the criminal justice system by becoming harsher toward student misbehavior despite decreases in delinquency. Moreover, Black students consistently are
Race, Gender, School Discipline, and Human Capital Effects
Noncognitive factors such as discipline (and its mirror, punishment in the form of discipline referrals) can affect school and labor market outcomes, human capital development, and thus the economic
Fear of a Black (and Poor) School: Race, Class, and School Safety Policy Preferences
School security and punishment practices have changed throughout the United States since the 1990s. Yet we know little about public support for these practices nor how this support varies when
The Relationship of Punitive and Isolating School Policies and Academic Self-Efficacy
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between race, suspensions, expulsions, grade retention, and special education placement and students’ academic self-efficacy. This study


On the Validity of Official Statistics A Comparative Study of White, Black, and Japanese High-School Boys
A continuing debate in the sociology of deviance is the degree to which official statistics are representative of the distribution and rate of deviance in the society. Some argue that official
Reconciling race and class differences in self-reported and official estimates of delinquency.
This paper addresses the general question of whether or not the satisfactory resolution of the methodological criticisms of self-report research will result in greater consistency between
Race and Juvenile Justice Processing in Court and Police Agencies
Studies of race bias in the juvenile justice system have yielded contradictory and inconclusive findings. The diversity of findings, though due in part to inadequacies in the methods used in pervious
Correlates of Delinquency: The Illusion of Discrepancy between Self-Report and Official Measures.
This paper reviews the research literature concerning the extent to which studies of delinquency that use official records produce results compatible with studies of delinquency that use self-reports
Inner-City Youth, the Police, the Juvenile Court, and Justice
In spite of the fact that black first-offender deliquents present less intensive antisocial attitudes and behavior patterns than white delinquents, they receive more severe dispositions from the
Changing Patterns of Delinquent Behavior Among Americans 13 Through 16 Years Old: 1967-1972. National Survey of Youth Report No. 1.
DOCU8211T 215082 IC 071 878 Gold, Martin; Reimer, David J. Changing Patterns of Delinquent Behavior Among Americans 13 Through 16 Years Old: 1967-1972. National Survey of Youth Report No. 1.
Police control of juveniles.
Achievement motivation and religious background, and individual comparisons by ranking methods.
Causes of Delinquency.
  • T. Hirschi
  • Law, Sociology
    British medical journal
  • 1950
In Causes of Delinquency, Hirschi attempts to state and test a theory of delinquency, seeing in the delinquent a person relatively free of the intimate attachments, the aspirations, and the moral
Schools and the Delinquency Experience
The basic proposition examined here is that school experience is an important factor in understanding delinquency but that before this statement can be examined, it is necessary to elaborate an
Is direction of socialization stable through early adolescence? A cross-sectional assessment of 12- to 15-year-old children in Akron, Ohio, by sex, race, and type of neighborhood was made. Average