The Social Construction of School Punishment: Racial Disadvantage Out of Universalistic Process

@article{McCarthy1987TheSC,
  title={The Social Construction of School Punishment: Racial Disadvantage Out of Universalistic Process},
  author={John D. McCarthy and Dean R. Hoge},
  journal={Social Forces},
  year={1987},
  volume={65},
  pages={1101-1120}
}
Black adolescents are much more likely to run afoul of the juvenile justice system than are similar white adolescents, even though the two groups self-report similar rates of offending. Within public schools we find the same differential pattern. Using three waves of longitudinal data collected in schools we evaluate several explanations for the disparity. The greater rates of punishment for blacks occur as a consequence of teachers' perceptions of the students' behavior, their knowledge of… 
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