The Slum Upgrading Myth

  title={The Slum Upgrading Myth},
  author={Herbert H. Werlin},
  journal={Urban Studies},
  pages={1523 - 1534}
  • H. Werlin
  • Published 1 August 1999
  • Economics
  • Urban Studies
The World Bank's slum upgrading approach, used for the first generation of its urban development projects during the 1970s and 1980s, was considerably influenced by the writing of John F. C. Turner. Turner minimised the role of government, limiting it to providing essential environmental improvements and public services, thereby allowing squatters and/or slum-dwellers to improve gradually their living conditions. While early evaluations of slum upgrading projects in Calcutta, Jakarta and Manila… 
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    International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science
  • 2021
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