The Shi‘is in Lebanon: Between communal ‘asabiyya and Arab nationalism, 1908–21

@article{Firro2006TheSI,
  title={The Shi‘is in Lebanon: Between communal ‘asabiyya and Arab nationalism, 1908–21},
  author={Kais M. Firro},
  journal={Middle Eastern Studies},
  year={2006},
  volume={42},
  pages={535 - 550}
}
  • K. Firro
  • Published 1 July 2006
  • Sociology
  • Middle Eastern Studies
Like the Alawis, Druzes, Isma‘ilis and other Muslim religious communities of the Ottoman Empire, the Shi‘is in Jabal ‘Amil (the southern part of Modern Lebanon) and in the Biqa‘ constituted, until the end of the nineteenth century, a particularist religious community attached to its ‘asabiyya (esprit de corps or group solidarity). At the end of the nineteenth century, Christian and Sunni Muslim intellectuals in Syria and Lebanon began to elaborate proto-nationalist ideas to be transformed later… 
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