The Sexual Assault and Secondary Victimization of Female Veterans: Help-Seeking Experiences with Military and Civilian Social Systems

@article{Campbell2005TheSA,
  title={The Sexual Assault and Secondary Victimization of Female Veterans: Help-Seeking Experiences with Military and Civilian Social Systems},
  author={Rebecca Campbell and Sheela Raja},
  journal={Psychology of Women Quarterly},
  year={2005},
  volume={29},
  pages={106 - 97}
}
A sample of predominantly low-income, African American female veterans and reservists seeking health care in a Veterans' Administration medical clinic was screened for a history of sexual assault since age 18. Overall, 39% had been sexually assaulted in adulthood. Those who had been sexually victimized were asked to describe one assault incident in detail: 38% described an assault that occurred during military service and 62% described one that occurred before or after military service. This… 

Tables from this paper

Bystander Response to Sexual Assault Disclosures in the U.S. Military: Encouraging Survivors to use Formal Resources.

TLDR
Bystander responses to disclosures can have a significant effect on survivors' response to the assault, and these findings can help in identifying why bystanders may or may not encourage the use of formal resources after receiving a sexual assault disclosure.

Collateral damage: Military sexual trauma and help-seeking barriers.

OBJECTIVE: Military Sexual Trauma (MST) can be a harmful aspect of military life. Despite the availability of resources, Service members may encounter barriers that impede help-seeking for sexual

The Impact of Experiential Avoidance on the Relationships Among Military Sexual Trauma, Excessive Behaviors, and Health-Related Outcomes in Female Veterans

Military Sexual Trauma (MST) as defined in United States Public Law, refers to inappropriate sexual conduct, assault, or harassment experienced by a military servicemember during his or her course of

A Qualitative Study Of Sexual Assault Survivors’ Post-Assault Legal System Experiences

TLDR
The findings suggest that survivors and SPs consider the perceived strength of their case, perceptions of police, and the possibility of institutional bias when deciding to report the assault to the police.

Women Veterans’ Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence and Non-Partner Sexual Assault in the Context of Military Service: Implications for Supporting Women’s Health and Well-Being

TLDR
The findings highlight the impact of IPV/SA on women’s military careers, including options for entering and leaving military service, job performance, and opportunities for advancement, and underscore the need for both military and civilian communities to recognize and address the negative impact of such violence on women service members before, during, and after military service.

Developing Trauma-Informed Research Methods: Using Proxy Respondents to Assess Sexual Assault Survivors' Experiences Seeking Medical Forensic Exams.

TLDR
Using pairwise McNemar tests, researchers found statistically significant agreement on victim demographics, assault characteristics, and victims' decisions regarding medical forensic exams, sexual assault kit (SAK) collection, and release of SAKs for forensic DNA testing.

Military sexual assault (MSA) among veterans in Southern California: Associations with physical health, psychological health, and risk behaviors.

TLDR
The relationship between military sexual assault (MSA) and various health and behavioral outcomes among a community-based sample of male and female veterans is described and the need for timely assessment of MSA to help mitigate negative health outcomes among veterans is highlighted.

Impact of a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Program Prosecution of Adult Sexual Assault Cases : A Longitudinal Analysis of the

Most sexual assaults are never reported to law enforcement, and even among reported cases, most will never be successfully prosecuted. This reality has been a long-standing source of frustration for

Secondary Victimization of Sexual Minority Men Following Disclosure of Sexual Assault: “Victimizing Me All Over Again…”

The estimated prevalence of adult sexual assault among sexual minority men (SMM) is comparable to published estimates for women. Adult sexual assault is associated with low disclosure rates and poor
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 32 REFERENCES

The Prevalence of Military Sexual Assault Among Female Veterans' Administration Outpatients

TLDR
The authors report the prevalence of military sexual violence and make comparisons among women veterans who report they experienced sexual violence while in the military and those who did not, using data from the Veterans' Administration Womens' Health Project.

Prevalence and timing of sexual assaults in a sample of male and female U.S. Army soldiers.

TLDR
Results suggest that a history of childhood sexual abuse may be more widespread among female soldiers than among civilian women, and that ascribed and achieved status characteristics may differentially expose soldiers to sexual assaults both before and after they enter the military.

The prevalence of physical and sexual abuse in women veterans seeking care at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

TLDR
Over 40% of the women reporting abuse were never victimized while on active duty, and these women were less likely to receive counseling, demonstrating the need for additional services to assist these women.

Medical profile of women Veterans Administration outpatients who report a history of sexual assault occurring while in the military.

TLDR
Clinicians need to be attuned to the high frequency of sexual assault occurring while in the military reported by women VA users and its associated array of current physical symptoms and medical conditions.

Health‐Related Consequences of Physical and Sexual Violence: Women in the Military

Community services for rape survivors: enhancing psychological well-being or increasing trauma?

This research examined how contact with the legal, medical, and mental health systems affects rape survivors' psychological well-being. Although community services may be beneficial for some victims,

Secondary Victimization of Rape Victims: Insights From Mental Health Professionals Who Treat Survivors of Violence

TLDR
Survey of licensed mental health professionals about the extent to which they believe rape victims are “re-raped” in their interactions with social system personnel found most therapists believed that some community professionals engage in harmful behaviors that are detrimental to rape survivors’ psychological well-being.

Prevalence of Depressive and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Among Women VA Outpatients Who Report Experiencing Sexual Assault While in the Military

TLDR
Self-reported prevalence of sexual assault experienced during military service and screening prevalence for current symptoms of depression and alcohol abuse between those who did and did not report this history are determined.

Rape Survivors' Experiences With the Legal and Medical Systems

  • R. Campbell
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Violence against women
  • 2006
TLDR
Rape survivors who had the assistance of an advocate were significantly more likely to have police reports taken and were less likely to be treated negatively by police officers, and reported less distress from their medical contact experiences.

The scope of rape: incidence and prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample of higher education students.

TLDR
The findings support published assertions of high rates of rape and other forms of sexual aggression among large normal populations and are limited in generalizability to postsecondary students.