The Self‐Medication Hypothesis of Substance Use Disorders: A Reconsideration and Recent Applications

@article{Khantzian1997TheSH,
  title={The Self‐Medication Hypothesis of Substance Use Disorders: A Reconsideration and Recent Applications},
  author={Edward J Khantzian},
  journal={Harvard Review of Psychiatry},
  year={1997},
  volume={4},
  pages={231–244}
}
  • E. Khantzian
  • Published 1 January 1997
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Harvard Review of Psychiatry
&NA; The self‐medication hypothesis of addictive disorders derives primarily from clinical observations of patients with substance use disorders. Individuals discover that the specific actions or effects of each class of drugs relieve or change a range of painful affect states. Self‐medication factors occur in a context of self‐regulation vulnerabilities–‐primarily difficulties in regulating affects, self‐esteem, relationships, and self‐care. Persons with substance use disorders suffer in the… 
The Many Faces (and Potential Dangers) of Self-Medication as an Explanatory Concept for Substance Use
The self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders maintains that individuals use substances to cope with dysphoric affect, and that painful emotional states are etiologically relevant to the
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  • E. Khantzian
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American journal on addictions
  • 2016
The self-Medication Hypothesis (SMH) of substance use disorders rests on clinical observations of many substance dependent individuals (practice based evidence) who provide compelling reports and
Further evidence of self-medication: personality factors influencing drug choice in substance use disorders.
TLDR
This project tested the self-medication hypothesis in a treatment sample of treatment-seeking individuals with substance dependence, using more heterogeneous, personality-driven measures that are theory-congruent and partially support the SMH, particularly in its characterization of personality functioning in those addicted to depressants and opiates.
Substance Use to Regulate Affective Experiences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Laboratory-Based Studies
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and elevated levels of substance use (SU) regularly co-occur and are increasingly viewed as functionally related. While PTSD and SU may be comorbid for a variety
Substance use in severe mental illness: self-medication and vulnerability factors
Pathways to heroin dependence: time to re-appraise self-medication.
  • S. Darke
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Addiction
  • 2013
The self-medication hypothesis emphasizes the role of distressing affect as the primary motivator for the compulsive use that leads to substance dependence. The model also postulates that there will
The Need to Numb: Substance Use and Therapeutic Management
People have long used substances for pleasure, self-medication, and experimentation or due to pressure from friends and families, to enhance concentration, advance creativity, decrease social
THE ROLE OF DYSFUNCTIONAL BELIEFS IN INDIVIDUALS WHO EXPERIENCE PSYCHOSIS AND USE SUBSTANCES: IMPLICATIONS FOR COGNITIVE THERAPY AND MEDICATION ADHERENCE
  • H. Graham
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
  • 1998
TLDR
It is suggested that for individuals who experience psychosis and also use drugs or alcohol, the ability to identify the relationship between the substance use and the psychotic illness in terms of a case formulation/conceptualization would provide a good starting point for developing strategies and interventions that are most likely to succeed in treatment.
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