The Scientific Basis for High-Intensity Interval Training

  title={The Scientific Basis for High-Intensity Interval Training},
  author={Paul B. Laursen and David G. Jenkins},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
While the physiological adaptations that occur following endurance training in previously sedentary and recreationally active individuals are relatively well understood, the adaptations to training in already highly trained endurance athletes remain unclear. While significant improvements in endurance performance and corresponding physiological markers are evident following submaximal endurance training in sedentary and recreationally active groups, an additional increase in submaximal training… 
Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes
Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance‐trained athletes can maintain the oxidative capacity and improve intense short‐duration/repeated high‐intensity exercise performance lasting 30 s to 4 min, as it occurs in a number of sports.
Manipulating training intensity and volume in already well-trained rats: effect on skeletal muscle oxidative and glycolytic enzymes and buffering capacity.
HIT compared with HVT in already well-trained rats resulted in significantly higher oxidative and glycolytic capacities of fast-contracting fibres, and no differences were shown in fast- contracting muscle between HIT and CON.
Manipulating exercise and recovery to enhance adaptations to sprint interval training
A potentially potent and novel training concept that appears capable of augmenting aerobic capacity is introduced through a combination of an acute in vivo molecular experiment, a training study and an athlete case study.
Adding strength to endurance training does not enhance aerobic capacity in cyclists
It is demonstrated that concurrent training does not enhance muscle aerobic capacity and endurance performance in cyclists.
The use of blood-flow restriction to enhance high-intensity endurance performance and skeletal muscle adaptation
The findings from these studies imply that post-exercise BFR does not increase mitochondrial content, but although there was no increase in skeletal muscle capillarity, there were suggestions thatpost-ex exercise BFR could elicit an enhanced angiogenic stimulus when undertaken with higher training volumes and could subsequently increase performance.
Enhancing athletic performance through high-intensity interval training and sodium bicarbonate supplementation
It was concluded that four weeks of HIT improves 2000 m time-trial performance and relative VO2 peak in competitive rowers, more than CT, and the research literature was still equivocal as to the most effective method of NaHCO3 supplementation.
Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity, or high volume training
POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes, and HVT or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables.
Training intensity distribution, physiological adaptation and immune function in endurance athletes
The aims of this thesis were to assess the effectiveness of training-intensity distribution on the improvements in physiological adaptation, endurance performance and assess if manipulating training- intensity distribution had an effect on immune function, and suggest that a greater proportion of training time spent in zone two is more beneficial than a threshold training model.
Training modalities: impact on endurance capacity.
Endurance exercise performance in masters runners: physiological determinants and training recommendations
The first part of this article analyses the factors responsible for the decrease in performance with increased age and different training methodologies that Masters runners in the middleto long-distance events can use in order to prevent this decrease and, more importantly, increase their performance.


Skeletal muscle buffering capacity and endurance performance after high-intensity interval training by well-trained cyclists
The results indicate that βm may be an important determinant of relatively short-duration (< 60 min) endurance cycling activity and responds positively to just six sessions of high-intensity, submaximal interval training.
Training techniques to improve fatigue resistance and enhance endurance performance.
The physiological factors associated with successful endurance performance are identified, and the results of investigations on competitive endurance cyclists which examined the time-course of changes in performance in response to a sustained, high-intensity interval training programme are summarized.
Endurance training enhances critical power.
Whether critical power (CP) assesses the ability to perform continuous aerobic exercise and to determine whether training-induced changes in aerobic endurance are reflected by changes in the slope, but not the y-intercept of the CP function are investigated.
Progressive effect of endurance training on metabolic adaptations in working skeletal muscle.
The results show that a period of short-term training results in many characteristic training adaptations but that these adaptations occurred before increases in mitochondrial potential, which were linked to the increase in muscle mitochondrial capacity.
Effects of endurance training on transient oxygen uptake responses in cyclists.
Results indicate that oxygen uptake kinetics may be improved with endurance training in previously trained athletes.
Plasma glucose metabolism during exercise: effect of endurance training in humans.
  • A. Coggan
  • Biology
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise
  • 1997
Reduced reliance on plasma glucose, which appears to result from a decrease in muscle glucose transport, seems to be related to the training-induced increase in muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity.
Glucose kinetics during high-intensity exercise in endurance-trained and untrained humans.
It is concluded that utilization of plasma glucose is lower in trained subjects during high-intensity exercise, even when the exercise is performed at the same relative (and therefore a higher absolute) intensity as in the untrained state.
The Effect of Endurance Training on Parameters of Aerobic Fitness
The importance of improvements in the aerobic fitness parameters to the enhancement of endurance performance is highlighted, as are the training methods that may be considered optimal for facilitating such improvements.
Improved athletic performance in highly trained cyclists after interval training.
Results indicate that a 4-wk program of HIT increased the PPO and fatigue resistance of competitive cyclists and improved their 40-km time trial performances.
Skeletal muscle metabolic and ionic adaptations during intense exercise following sprint training in humans.
Sprint training resulted in reduced anaerobic ATP generation during intense exercise, suggesting that aerobic metabolism was enhanced, which may allow increased time to fatigue.