The Scarecrow and the Tin Man: The Vicissitudes of Human Sympathy and Caring

@article{Loewenstein2007TheSA,
  title={The Scarecrow and the Tin Man: The Vicissitudes of Human Sympathy and Caring},
  author={George Loewenstein and Deborah A. Small},
  journal={Review of General Psychology},
  year={2007},
  volume={11},
  pages={112 - 126}
}
Why do some victims elicit outpourings of sympathy from those who are unaffected, while others do not? The authors propose a theoretical framework for making sense of the vicissitudes of sympathy based on the interaction between two qualitatively different mental processes. One, which the authors term “sympathy,” is caring but immature and irrational. The other process, which the authors term “deliberation,” is rational but uncaring. After proposing a framework for how these two factors… 

Figures from this paper

Creating a Compassionate World: Addressing the Conflicts Between Sharing and Caring Versus Controlling and Holding Evolved Strategies
TLDR
This paper explores an evolutionary analysis relating to evolved resource-regulation strategies that can be called “care and share” versus “control and hold,” and considers these different resource regulation strategies as competing within populations shaping psychophysiological patterns.
Concerned protesters: from compassion to retaliation
Purpose The purpose of the study is to outline the unique role of compassion in reactions to cases of irresponsible corporate behavior that present information about victims of these events.
Hume's Theory of Moral Imagination
D Hume endorses three statements that are difficult to reconcile: (1) sympathy with those in distress is sufficient to produce compassion toward their plight, (2) adopting the moral point of view
The Evolution and Social Dynamics of Compassion
The inner processes that make compassion possible arose from the evolutionary advantage of caring for others, especially offspring, kin and in-group allies. This paper explores issues in defining
Shame and the vulnerable self in medical contexts: the compassionate solution
TLDR
The evolutionary origins of shame and caring and compassion and the potential opposite impacts of these different types of social experience are outlined and compared and contrast them with particular reference to the medical context are compared and contrasted.
Restoring the Victim: Emotional Reactions, Justice Beliefs, and Support for Reparation and Punishment
Psychological responses to criminal wrongdoing have primarily focused on the offender, particularly on how (and why) offender punishment satisfies people’s need for justice. However, the restoration
Power to the Powerless: Interpersonal Influence through Sympathy Appeals
In this dissertation I examine the elicitation of sympathy as an influence strategy to overcome weak positioning in mixed-motive interactions. I show that by making appeals to sympathy, low power
Compassion: From Its Evolution to a Psychotherapy
TLDR
This paper outlines an evolution informed biopsychosocial, multicomponent model to caring behavior and its derivative “compassion” that underpins newer approaches to psychotherapy and suggests that it is the way recent human cognitive competencies give rise to different types of “mind awareness” and “knowing intentionality’ that transform basic caring motives into potentials for compassion.
Mental Imagery, Impact, and Affect: A Mediation Model for Charitable Giving
TLDR
This work proposes a model in which identified victim and victim number effects operate through different cognitive and affective mechanisms and shows that different affective motivations are related to the cognitive processes of impact judgments and mental imagery.
Differences in the Semantics of Prosocial Words: an Exploration of Compassion and Kindness
The study of prosocial behaviour has accelerated greatly in the last 20 years. Researchers are exploring different domains of prosocial behaviour such as compassion, kindness, caring, cooperation,
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 83 REFERENCES
If I Look at the Mass I Will Never Act: Psychic Numbing and Genocide
Most people are caring and will exert great effort to rescue individual victims whose needy plight comes to their attention. These same good people, however, often become numbly indifferent to the
The Principles of Morals and Legislation
Jeremy Bentham's work on "The Principles of Morals and Legislation" emerges from its historic roots in hedonism and teleology as a scientific attempt to assess the moral content of human action by
The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide
TLDR
Robert Jay Lifton, a renowned psychiatrist and author, spent a decade interviewing Nazi doctors and concentration camp survivors to piece together the horrifying process by which German physicians aided (for the most part willingly) in the destruction of 6 million innocent men, women, and children.
Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases.
TLDR
The Perception-Action Model (PAM), together with an understanding of how representations change with experience, can explain the major empirical effects in the literature and can also predict a variety of empathy disorders.
Reinterpreting the empathy-altruism relationship: when one into one equals oneness.
TLDR
It is suggested that the conditions that lead to empathic concern also lead to a greater sense of self-other overlap, raising the possibility that helping under these conditions is not selfless but is also directed toward the self.
The Conscience of Huckleberry Finn
In this paper, I shall present not just the conscience of Huckleberry Finn but two others as well. One of them is the conscience of Heinrich Himmler. He became a Nazi in 1923; he served drably and
Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals
Prologue Darwinian Dilemmas Survival of the Unfittest Biologicizing Morality Calvinist Sociobiology A Broader View The Invisible Grasping Organ Ethology and Ethics Photo Essay: Closeness Sympathy
Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View
The Dilema of Obedience Obedience is as basic an element in the structure of social life as one can point to. Some system of authority is a requirement of all communal living, and it is only the man
Nothing More than Feelings? The Role of Emotions in Moral Judgment
There is a powerful tradition that views emotions as harmful to the process of moral judgment and decision-making. Stemming from the writings of Kant and others, who viewed emotions as undependable
...
...