The SSX gene family: Characterization of 9 complete genes

@article{Gre2002TheSG,
  title={The SSX gene family: Characterization of 9 complete genes},
  author={Ali Osmay G{\"u}re and Isaac J Wei and Lloyd J. Old and Yao-Tseng Chen},
  journal={International Journal of Cancer},
  year={2002},
  volume={101}
}
Human SSX genes comprise a gene family with 6 known members. SSX1, 2 and 4 have been found to be involved in the t(X;18) translocation characteristically found in all synovial sarcomas. Four (SSX1, 2, 4 and 5) are known to be expressed in a subset of tumors and testis, and anti‐SSX antibodies have been found in sera from cancer patients. SSX antigens are thus typical cancer‐testis (CT) antigens. To identify additional SSX family members, we isolated and characterized human genomic clones… 
Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Oncogenic Function of SS18 and SSX
TLDR
The findings that SSX, along with several other members of the CT-antigen family is expressed in mesenchymal stem cells and their expression is down regulated following differentiation are presented, suggesting that targeting the p53HDM2 auto regulatory loop may be of therapeutic benefit for synovial sarcoma.
Identification of a new cancer/testis gene family, CT47, among expressed multicopy genes on the human X chromosome
TLDR
Five novel CT gene families with testis‐specific expression and >98% sequence identity among family members are identified by searching for transcript clusters that map to multiple locations on the chromosome, followed by in silico analysis of their gene expression profiles.
The evolutionary history of the SSX family of human C/T-antigens
TLDR
A comparative analysis of the human, chimpanzee and mouse genomic loci allowed us to describe the phylogeny of the SSX family and to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the locus in terms of elementary events.
The synovial-sarcoma-associated SS18-SSX2 fusion protein induces epigenetic gene (de)regulation.
TLDR
The SS18-SSX2 fusion protein may act as a so-called transcriptional "activator-repressor," which induces downstream target gene deregulation through epigenetic mechanisms, which may have implications for both the development and clinical management of synovial sarcomas.
Subnuclear distribution of SSX regulates its function
TLDR
It is demonstrated that SSX or its SYT fusion protein is distributed as nuclear speckles, in which it is co-localized with B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (Bmi1), which is a core factor of polycomb repressor complex 1.
The impact of chromosomal translocation locus and fusion oncogene coding sequence in synovial sarcomagenesis
TLDR
A mouse sarcoma model expressing SS18-SSX1 is reported, complementing the authors' prior model, and two possible roles for native SSX2 in synovial sarcomagenesis are explored.
The C terminus of the synovial sarcoma-associated SSX proteins interacts with the LIM homeobox protein LHX4
TLDR
It is concluded that this novel protein – protein interaction may have direct consequences for the (de)regulation of SSX and/or SS18–SSX target genes and, thus, for the development of human synovial sarcomas.
Truncated SSX Protein Suppresses Synovial Sarcoma Cell Proliferation by Inhibiting the Localization of SS18-SSX Fusion Protein
TLDR
The results suggest that the characteristic speckle localization pattern of SS18-SSX is strongly involved in the tumorigenesis through the SSX moiety of theSS18- SSX fusion protein.
Novel SYT-SSX fusion transcript variants in synovial sarcoma.
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TLDR
Analysis of t(X;18) translocation in synovial sarcoma led to the definition of the SSX2 gene, the fusion partner on chromosome X, and screening of testicular cDNA libraries identified 2 highly homologous genes, SSX1 and SSX3, which belong to the family of cancer/testis antigens with characteristic mRNA expression in normal testis and in cancer.
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The HOM‐MEL‐40 antigen which is encoded by the SSX‐2 gene was originally detected as a tumor antigen recognized by autologous IgG antibodies in a melanoma patient. Expression analysis demonstrated
Fusion of SYT to two genes, SSX1 and SSX2, encoding proteins with homology to the Kruppel‐associated box in human synovial sarcoma.
TLDR
Sequence analysis has demonstrated heterogeneity in the fusion transcripts with the formation of two distinct SYT‐SSX1 fusion junctions and two distinctSYT‐ SSX2 fusionjunctions.
A novel Krüppel-associated box containing the SSX gene (SSX3) on the human X chromosome is not implicated in t(X;18)-positive synovial sarcomas.
TLDR
It is concluded from RT-PCR data and from results reported in the literature that SSX3 does not act as a fusion partner to SYT in any of the 44 independent synovial sarcomas thus far tested.
Identification of novel genes, SYT and SSX, involved in the t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) translocation found in human synovial sarcoma
TLDR
Sequencing of cDNA clones shows that the normal SYT gene encodes a protein rich in glutamine, proline and glycine, and indicates that in synovial sarcoma rearrangement of the SYT genes results in the formation of an SYT–SSX fusion protein.
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Synovial sarcomas are rather common among soft-tissue tumors, occurring at any age but affecting mainly young adults. The vast majority of synovial sarcomas carries a t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) chromosomal
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TLDR
CDNA from HS‐SY‐3 cells, as well as the original sarcoma tissue by the rapid amplification of cDNA 3′ end assay, found that the chimaeric cDNA was 240 bp shorter than the previously established SYT/SSX1 cDNA due to truncation of the 3′ side of SSX1.
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TLDR
Comparison of ING1 cDNA from normal and tumor tissues showed no mutation in the index breast cancer case and revealed the presence of at least three different mRNA transcripts with variable transcription initiation sites and exon usage, which need further exploration.
Molecular mechanisms underlying human synovial sarcoma development
Synovial sarcomas are rather common among soft‐tissue tumors, occurring at any age but affecting mainly young adults. The vast majority of synovial sarcomas carries a t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) chromosomal
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