The SALMFamides: a new family of neuropeptides isolated from an echinoderm

@article{Elphick1991TheSA,
  title={The SALMFamides: a new family of neuropeptides isolated from an echinoderm},
  author={M. Elphick and D. Price and T. Lee and M. Thorndyke},
  journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences},
  year={1991},
  volume={243},
  pages={121 - 127}
}
We have isolated two novel related neuropeptides from the radial nerve cords of the starfishes Asterias rubens and Asterias forbesi. One is an octapeptide with the amino acid sequence Gly-Phe-Asn-Ser-Ala-Leu-Met-Phe-NH2 and the other is a dodecapeptide with the amino acid sequence Ser-Gly-Pro-Tyr-Ser-Phe-Asn-Ser-Gly-Leu-Thr-Phe-NH2. The peptides were purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a radioimmunoassay for the molluscan FMRFamide-related neuropeptide… Expand
Isolation of the neuropeptide SALMFamide-1 from starfish using a new antiserum
TLDR
The sensitivity and specificity of two antisera (BL and SL) for S1 were established by testing the ability of S1 and structurally related peptides (SALMFamide-2 and various FMRFamide-related peptides) to displace iodinated KYSalMFamide from the serum antibodies in an RIA. Expand
Characterization of Two Novel Neuropeptides From the Sea Cucumber Holothuria glaberrima.
TLDR
Sequence similarities between GFSKLYFamide, SGYSVLYfamide, and a pair of peptides previously isolated from starfish lead us to propose that all four molecules are members of a family of peptide acting as neurotransmitters in echinoderms. Expand
SALMFamide salmagundi: the biology of a neuropeptide family in echinoderms.
  • M. Elphick
  • Biology, Medicine
  • General and comparative endocrinology
  • 2014
TLDR
Analysis of the actions of the heterogeneous mixtures of SALMFamides that occur in echinoderms may provide new insights into the physiological significance of the general phenomenon of precursor proteins that give rise to neuropeptide "cocktails". Expand
Distribution and action of SALMFamide neuropeptides in the starfish Asterias rubens.
TLDR
The production and characterisation of an S2-specific antiserum designated CLII is described, which has been used in a radioimmunoassay to measure S1 and S2 levels in extracts of body parts from the starfish Asterias rubens. Expand
The neuropeptide transcriptome of a model echinoderm, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.
TLDR
The identification of 20 cDNAs encoding putative neuropeptide precursors in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Phylum Echinodermata), providing new insights on the evolution and diversity of Neuropeptides. Expand
The Evolution and Diversity of SALMFamide Neuropeptides
TLDR
The ancestry of the two SALMFamide gene types traces back to the common ancestor of echinoids, holothurians and asteroids, although it is not clear if the occurrence of L-type peptides in F-type SALMFamides precursors is an ancestral or derived character. Expand
Discovery of a second SALMFamide gene in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus reveals that L-type and F-type SALMFamide neuropeptides coexist in an echinoderm species.
TLDR
The discovery that in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus there are two SALMFamide genes is revealed, revealing for the first time that L-type and F-type SALMFamides neuropeptides can coexist in an echinoderm species but are encoded by different genes. Expand
Molecular characterisation of SALMFamide neuropeptides in sea urchins
TLDR
Characterisation of the SALMFamides gene in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus provides the first insight into the structure and organisation of a SALMFamide gene in an echinoderm, and reveals a hitherto unknown complexity in the diversity of SAL MFamide neuropeptides that may occur in a echinoderms species. Expand
Identification of novel SALMFamide neuropeptides in the starfish Marthasterias glacialis.
TLDR
The identification of MagS3 and MagS4, in addition to S1 and the S2-like peptide MagS2, has revealed a greater diversity of SALMFamide neuropeptides occurring in a starfish species than any previous studies. Expand
Localization of the SALMFamide neuropeptides in the starfish Marthasterias glacialis
TLDR
Immunocytochemical data support the notion that the SALMFamides may play a neuroendocrine role in mediating feeding behaviour of the starfish and further studies are required to elucidate their physiological functions. Expand
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The organization of the Lymnaea gene is significant with respect to the evolution of FMRFamide and related peptides in other organisms. Expand
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Since pQDPFLRFamide occurs in Helix blood at levels sufficient to excite the isolated Helix heart, it may act as a cardioregulatory hormone. Expand
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The major FMRFamide-like peptide of Helix aspersa can be purified almost to homogeity by two successive, isocratic HPLC runs and has a blocked N-terminal and a phenylalanine-like UV absorption spectrum. Expand
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TLDR
The nervous system of the starfish Asterias rubens was subjected to immunocytochemical investigation using antisera raised against the molluscan neuropeptide FMRFamide, and immunoreactive fibers were particularly evident in the regenerating radial nerves of previously sectioned arms. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
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One receptor type mediates two independent effects of FMRFa on neurosecretory cells of Lymnaea
TLDR
It is concluded that activation of the receptor requires [Arg3-Phe4]-NH2, whereas N-terminal amino acids are involved in binding, which suggests that CDCs possess a single type of FMRFa receptors. Expand
The biology of the FMRFamide-series of peptides in molluscs with special reference to Helix.
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TLDR
Localisation, role and action of neuropeptides, en particulier le peptide FMRF amide dans les pericaryons des neurones chez les mollusques chez the mollesques, are revealed. Expand
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