The Runner-Up Effect ∗

  title={The Runner-Up Effect ∗},
  author={S. Fujiwara},
Exploiting regression discontinuity designs in Brazilian, Indian, and Canadian first-pastthe-post elections, we document that second-place candidates are substantially more likely than close third-place candidates to run in, and win, subsequent elections. Since both candidates lost the election and had similar electoral performance, this is the effect of being labeled the runner-up. We explore the potential mechanisms for this runner-up effect, including selection into candidacy, heuristic… CONTINUE READING


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