The Role of the Medial Frontal Cortex in Cognitive Control

  title={The Role of the Medial Frontal Cortex in Cognitive Control},
  author={K. Richard Ridderinkhof and Markus Ullsperger and Eveline A. Crone and Sander Nieuwenhuis},
  pages={443 - 447}
Adaptive goal-directed behavior involves monitoring of ongoing actions and performance outcomes, and subsequent adjustments of behavior and learning. We evaluate new findings in cognitive neuroscience concerning cortical interactions that subserve the recruitment and implementation of such cognitive control. A review of primate and human studies, along with a meta-analysis of the human functional neuroimaging literature, suggest that the detection of unfavorable outcomes, response errors… 
Neural dynamics of error processing in medial frontal cortex
The Regulation of Cognitive Control following Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex Lesion in Humans
Damage to the rostral ACC impaired the posterror slowing, a further behavioral phenomenon indicating reactive adjustments in cognitive control, and insights into the functional organization of the medial prefrontal cortex in humans and its role in the dynamic regulation of cognitive control are provided.
Executive control in the anterior cingulate cortex
The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the anterior cingulate cortex is involved in executive control, specifically monitoring impairments in performance that signal the need to adjust cognitive control.
Substantia Nigra Activity Level Predicts Trial-to-Trial Adjustments in Cognitive Control
Evidence is provided from functional MRI in humans that activity in the SN predicts systematic subsequent trial-to-trial RT prolongations that are thought to reflect cognitive control in a stop-signal paradigm, consistent with a modulating output signal from the SN being involved in enhancing cognitive control.
The Neural Basis of Motivational Influences on Cognitive Control
A quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of motivated cognitive control using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) and Neurosynth suggests that flexible interactions between frontoparietal, salience, and dopaminergic midbrain-striatal networks may allow control demands to be precisely tailored based on expected value.
Motivation and cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex
The results indicate that motivation is a dissociable function, reveal how the PFC integrates motivation and cognitive control in the service of decision-making, and have major implications for current theories of prefrontal executive function.
Temporal Dynamics of Human Frontal and Cingulate Neural Activity During Conflict and Cognitive Control
It is shown that cognitive control manifests as a sustained increase in gamma band power, which correlates with response time, and that sustained local neural activity in dorsolateral and medial regions is what determines the timing of the correct response.
Cascade of neural processing orchestrates cognitive control in human frontal cortex
A temporal hierarchy for cognitive control in human cortex is suggested based on the dynamics underlying cognitive control across frontal regions taken advantage of the spatiotemporal resolution of intracranial recordings in epilepsy patients while subjects resolved color-word conflict.


Dissociable Executive Functions in the Dynamic Control of Behavior: Inhibition, Error Detection, and Correction
The present study employed event-related fMRI and EEG data to investigate the biological basis of the cognitive control of behavior and highlighted how higher cognitive functions responsible for behavioral control can result from the dynamic interplay of distinct cortical systems.
An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function.
It is proposed that cognitive control stems from the active maintenance of patterns of activity in the prefrontal cortex that represent goals and the means to achieve them, which provide bias signals to other brain structures whose net effect is to guide the flow of activity along neural pathways that establish the proper mappings between inputs, internal states, and outputs needed to perform a given task.
Inhibition and the right inferior frontal cortex
Performance Monitoring by the Anterior Cingulate Cortex During Saccade Countermanding
A saccade-countermanding task affords an experimental dissociation of neural signals of error, reinforcement, and conflict, consistent with the hypothesis that the anterior cingulate cortex monitors the consequences of actions.
The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in achieving goals
Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex: A role in reward-based decision making
  • G. Bush, B. Vogt, B. Rosen
  • Psychology, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
The data support a role for dACC in reward-based decision making, and by linking the human and monkey literatures, provide initial support for the existence of heterogeneity within dACC.
Anterior Cingulate Conflict Monitoring and Adjustments in Control
Using the Stroop color-naming task and controlling for repetition effects, it is demonstrated that ACC conflict-related activity predicts both greater prefrontal cortex activity and adjustments in behavior, supporting a role of ACC conflict monitoring in the engagement of cognitive control.
Prefrontal–cingulate interactions in action monitoring
The lateral prefrontal cortex seemed to interact with the anterior cingulate cortex in monitoring behavior and in guiding compensatory systems, and it was found that medial frontal cortex activity associated with action monitoring depended on activity in the lateral cortex.
Primate anterior cingulate cortex: Where motor control, drive and cognition interface
  • T. Paus
  • Biology, Psychology
    Nature Reviews Neuroscience
  • 2001
It is argued that the overlap of these three domains is key to distinguishing the anterior cingulate cortex from other frontal regions, placing it in a unique position to translate intentions to actions.