The process of implantation is highly complex and involves a delicate interplay between the embryo and the appropriate maternal environment. The failure to implant is thought to be due to maternal factors or embryonic factors. Inflammation can be a part of the normal physiologic process during implantation; however, there are also pathologic entities that adversely affect uterine receptivity. This review will focus on chronic endometritis and hydrosalpinges as two specific inflammatory processes that contribute to implantation failure. For both chronic endometritis and hydrosalpinges, we will review the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and effect on implantation following treatment. The existing literature conclusively demonstrates that hydrosalpinges should be addressed by either laparoscopic salpingectomy or proximal tubal occlusion prior to in vitro fertilization. The picture for chronic endometritis is less clear since the diagnosis and treatment of chronic endometritis are not standardized, and there are no available randomized controlled trials on this topic. Future studies may target gene expression arrays as a method for further elucidating the role of inflammatory markers in normal and abnormal implantation processes.