The Role of Diet and Exercise for the Maintenance of Fat-Free Mass and Resting Metabolic Rate During Weight Loss

  title={The Role of Diet and Exercise for the Maintenance of Fat-Free Mass and Resting Metabolic Rate During Weight Loss},
  author={Petra Stiegler and Adam Cunliffe},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
The incidence of obesity is increasing rapidly. Research efforts for effective treatment strategies still focus on diet and exercise programmes, the individual components of which have been investigated in intervention trials in order to determine the most effective recommendations for sustained changes in bodyweight. The foremost objective of a weight-loss trial has to be the reduction in body fat leading to a decrease in risk factors for metabolic syndrome. However, a concomitant decline in… 
The contribution of fat-free mass to resting energy expenditure: implications for weight loss strategies in the treatment of adolescent obesity
A better understanding of the influence of FFM on energy balance is needed to determine whether strategies to preserve lean tissue or maximize absolute weight loss should be most emphasized.
The Effects of Exercise Training on Fat-Mass Loss in Obese Patients During Energy Intake Restriction
Dietary restriction combined with endurance exercise training represents an effective strategy to promote weight loss and reduce fat mass in obese patients and the implementation of resistance training in such programmes does not augment fat-mass loss but improves body composition by increasing fat-free mass.
Fat-Free Mass Changes During Ketogenic Diets and the Potential Role of Resistance Training.
Mechanisms underlying the effects of a ketogenic diet on fat-free mass and the results of implementing exercise interventions in combination with this diet should also be examined.
Resistance Training Combined With Diet Decreases Body Fat While Preserving Lean Mass Independent of Resting Metabolic Rate: A Randomized Trial.
In conclusion, significant reductions in fat mass were achieved by all experimental groups, but results were maximized by RT+DIET.
The Effects of Exercise Training and Dietary Supplementation on Fat Metabolism and Body Composition in Obese Women
Exercise training increases the reliance on fatty acids for energy during physical activity in obese women and improved body composition, which was not affected by the dietary supplement.
Journal of Diabetes and Obesity
As compared to diet alone, the addition of strength or aerobic training did not improve changes in BMI, body fat, or metabolic risk factors although the diet plus strength training group showed a trend toward preservation of lean mass, and the dietplus aerobic group in men resulted in increased testosterone.
Effect of calorie restriction on energy expenditure in overweight and obese adult women.
Compliant women showed a significant reduction in both absolute and adjusted REE, which together with the loss of correlation between REE and FFM at the end of the intervention suggests a metabolic adaptation.
Metabolic slowing with massive weight loss despite preservation of fat-free mass.
Despite relative preservation of FFM, exercise did not prevent dramatic slowing of resting metabolism out of proportion to weight loss, suggesting this metabolic adaptation may persist during weight maintenance and predispose to weight regain unless high levels of physical activity or caloric restriction are maintained.
Predictors of successful weight loss with relative maintenance of fat-free mass in individuals with overweight and obesity on an 8-week low-energy diet
The protein intakes relative to initial FFM were sufficient for maintenance of FFM and specific eating behaviour characteristics were associated with weight loss success.


The effect of weight loss by dieting or exercise on resting metabolic rate in overweight men.
In moderately overweight men, a one-year program of weight Loss by energy restriction produced a significant decline in RMR while weight loss by exercise did not change RMR.
Short-term effects of weight loss with or without low-intensity exercise training on fat metabolism in obese men.
Addition of low-intensity exercise training to energy restriction counteracts the decline in fat oxidation during the postdiet period.
Resting metabolic rate, fat-free mass and catecholamine excretion during weight loss in female obese patients
Urinary noradrenalin excretion explained a further 4 % of the variability in RMR, but only before the diet, so that a role of sympathoadrenal system on RMR seems to be present in obese patients in basal conditions but not at the end of the LED.
Long-term effects of low-intensity exercise training on fat metabolism in weight-reduced obese men.
Continuation of low-intensity exercise training after weight reduction did not limit regain of body weight, unless exercise training was frequently performed, and relative fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and beta-adrenergic-mediated fat oxidation during rest, exercise, and recovery were maintained over the follow-up period in both groups.
Fat-free mass is maintained in women following a moderate diet and exercise program.
Results suggest that moderate levels of caloric restriction, aerobic cycle exercise, and/or resistance training are equally effective in maintaining FFM while encouraging body mass loss.
Short-term changes in body composition and metabolism with severe dieting and resistance exercise.
It was concluded that 4 weeks of resistance training did not prevent or reduce the decline in FFM and RMR observed with a VLKD.
Changes in energy expenditure and substrate oxidation resulting from weight loss in obese men and women: is there an important contribution of leptin?
It is suggested that a comparable weight loss is accompanied by a greater decrease in REE and substrate oxidation in men than in women, and that these changes are better explained byChanges in leptinemia in men and by changes in FM in women.
Body Fat Content Influences the Body Composition Response to Nutrition and Exercise
  • G. Forbes
  • Medicine
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2000
Body fat content must be taken into account in evaluating body composition changes induced by nutrition and exercise, as well as for animals and birds, including loss during hibernation.
Effects of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate on energy expenditure and body composition during weight reduction in obese women.
The addition of aerobic exercise to a low-energy diet was beneficial in the treatment of moderate obesity because of its favorable effects on body composition, physical activity, and TDEE.