The Role of Cyclic AMP in the Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism

@article{Sutherland1969TheRO,
  title={The Role of Cyclic AMP in the Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism},
  author={Earl W. Iii Sutherland and Gregory A. Robison},
  journal={Diabetes},
  year={1969},
  volume={18},
  pages={797 - 819}
}
Cyclic AMP plays an important role in the regulation of metabolism generally. Emphasis in the present review has been placed on carbohydrate metabolism, but lipid metabolism has also been discussed to some extent. The chief role of cyclic AMP in several tissues seems to be to facilitate or promote the mobilization of glucose and fatty acid reserves. In the liver, glucagon and the catecholamines cause an increase in the intracellular level of cyclic AMPby stimulating adenyl cyclase. This… 
Effect of hormones on content of purine nucleoside cyclic monophosphates in perfused rat liver
TLDR
A group of hormones which stimulates glycogen breakdown is vasopressin, which causes no increase in hepatic content of cyclic-AMP, and angiotensin II, which does not produce a stable activation of phosphorylase kinase in liver, is confirmed.
Control Mechanisms for the Synthesis of Glycogen in Striated Muscle
The key enzyme in the regulation of glycogen synthesis in muscle is the glycogen synthetase (UDP- glucose: α-1, 4-glucan α-4-glucosyltransferase; E C 2. 4. 1. 11). It is well-established that many
The Sources of Plasma Cyclic AMP: Studies in the Rat using Isoprenaline, Nicotinic Acid and Glucagon
TLDR
It is suggested that the liver is essential for the action of glucagon but that isoprenaline can increase plasma cyclic AMP concentrations in hepatectomised animals by increasing extrahepatic release of the nucleotide.
The Sources of Plasma Cyclic AMP: Studies in the Rat using Isoprenaline, Nicotinic Acid and Glucagon
Abstract. The effects of intravenous administration of isoprenaline, glucagon and nicotinic acid on plasma concentrations of cyclic AMP in rats are described. In order to determine the relative
ON THE ROLE OF CYCLIC AMP IN INSULIN RELEASE: II. DYNAMIC ASPECTS AND RELATIONS TO ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS IN THE PERIFUSED PANCREAS OF ADULT RATS *
TLDR
The results reviewed here suggest that the basal metabolic state of the B cell is critically involved in determining the adequacy of the initial immunoreactive insulin release response to glucose, and that maintenance of adequate cyclic AMP levels and/or of the activity of its generating In this monograph.
V. CATECHOLAMINES CYCLIC AMP‐ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS: Sympathin E, Sympathin I, and the Intracellular Level of Cyclic AMP
TLDR
These newer findings on the formation and metabolism of cyclic AMP are discussed in the light of some earlier concepts, notably the sympathin theory of Cannon and Rosenblueth1 and the concept of alpha and beta receptors developed by Ahlquist.
ON THE ROLE OF CYCLIC AMP IN INSULIN RELEASE: I. OVERALL EFFECTS IN CULTURED FETAL RAT PANCREAS *
TLDR
Dynamic insulin release studies have now become possible, however, and the preparation may well be particularly favorable in that it may allow for the as yet indirect characterization of a cyclic AMP effect on the maturation of fetal insulin release mechanisms.
Control of rat liver glycogen synthetase and phosphorylase activities by glucose.
TLDR
Circulating glucose levels also directly modify the effects of glucagon on the activities of these enzymes supporting the possibility that glucose levels may be important in moderating the control of liver glycogen metabolism in vivo.
Cyclic AMP metabolism and adenylate cyclase concentration in patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis.
TLDR
Hepatocytes in advanced cirrhosis have abnormal metabolic behavior characterized by abnormal adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP response to hormonal stimulation, which is significantly less responsive to glucagon stimulation than was that from donor livers.
Possible intervention of insulin, cyclic AMP, and glucocorticoids in protein-sparing action of dietary carbohydrate in rats.
TLDR
The overall results suggest that the protein-sparing action of dietary carbohydrate may be exerted in a different fashion from that of fat, that is, through depression of cyclic AMP in liver and thus the reduction of the degradation of amino acids in liver.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 180 REFERENCES
The role of cyclic AMP in the control of liver metabolism.
TLDR
The absence of any effect of glucagon on glucose or lactate formation from fructose suggests that cyclic AMP does not produce any significant effect on reactions between triose-P and glucose or on the conversion of P-pyruvate to pyruVate, and gluconeogenesis appears to be as sensitive as glycogenolysis to stimulation by glucagon, catecholamines and cyclicAMP.
The role of glucose, glucagon and glucocorticoids in the regulation of liver glycogen synthesis.
TLDR
No evidence has been obtained suggesting that prednisolone lowers the sensitivity of the synthetase kinase towards cyclic AMP, as neither the total activity of the diesterase nor its affinity for the cyclic nucleotide is altered by the treatments.
The Role of Cyclic AMP in the Action of Insulin
It is now clear that not all the biological effects of insulin are caused by an increased rate of transport of sugars and amino acids across the cell membrane. One well documented effect that does
Ketogenic and lipolytic effects of glucagon on liver.
TLDR
The present communication reports further experiments on increased ketogenesis due to glucagon, and suggests that the likely mechanism of this effect is activation of hepatic lipase, thus increasing the supply of fatty acids for β-oxidation within the liver.
Studies on the biological control of glycogen metabolism in liver. I. State and activity pattern of glycogen phosphorylase.
TLDR
It was observed that the injection of epinephrine increased the phosphorylase activity by about 54%, and therefore about 60% of the enzyme in the normal “resting” liver is present in the active form, suggesting that regulatory mechanisms in addition to those through which epine cortisol and glucagon mediate their effects are required to control the activity of this enzyme.
Control of gluconeogenesis in liver. 3. Effects of L-lactate, pyruvate, fructose, glucagon, epinephrine, and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate on gluconeogenic intermediates in the perfused rat liver.
TLDR
The liver has potent mechanisms to restore a displaced oxidation-reduction potential to normal and is virtually independent of the oxidation- reduction potential of the extramitochondrial NAD+-NADH couple as reflected by the lactate-pyruvate ratio of the tissue.
Hormonal effects on glycogen metabolism in the rat heart in situ.
TLDR
In heart as in skeletal muscle, hormones affect the critical steps in glycogen synthesis and degradation, perhaps in part through a common pathway sensitive to beta adrenergic blockade, but other factors such as physiological changes in cardiac muscle may be involved in the magnitude and direction of the response.
Effects of glucagon and fasting on acetate metabolism in perfused rat liver.
TLDR
The inhibition of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis in these livers appeared sufficient to contribute significantly to the ketogenic rate by sparing acetyl-CoA, and Krebs cycle activity was essentially unaffected by fasting.
Effects of epinephrine on glucose transport and metabolism in adipose tissue of normal and hypothyroid rats.
TLDR
It is concluded that epinephrine increases glucose oxidation by promoting its entry into adipose tissue and that the effect is independent of lipolysis.
Mechanism for the stimulation of gluconeogenesis by fatty acids in perfused rat liver.
TLDR
Results reported here indicate that in short-term experiments, the rate of gluconeogenesis can be controlled at the glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase step by the cellular level of DPNH.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...