The Role of Autophagy in Aging

  title={The Role of Autophagy in Aging},
  author={Ettore Bergamini and Gabriella Cavallini and Alessio Donati and Zina Gori},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
Abstract:  Aging denotes a postmaturational deterioration of cells and organisms with the passage of time, an increased vulnerability to challenges and prevalence of age‐associated diseases, and a decreased ability to survive. Causes of this deterioration may be found in an enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage and incomplete “housekeeping.” Caloric restriction is the most robust anti‐aging intervention known so far. Similar beneficial effects on median and… 

Autophagy and aging: Maintaining the proteome through exercise and caloric restriction

The longevity effects of exercise and CR may stem from the maintenance of the proteome by balancing the synthesis and recycling of intracellular proteins and thus may represent practical means to promote longevity.

Towards an understanding of the anti-aging mechanism of caloric restriction.

It is suggested that the pharmacological intensification of suppression of aging by the stimulation of autophagy might prove to be a big step towards retardation of aging and prevention of age-associated diseases in humans.

How to live long and prosper: autophagy, mitochondria, and aging.

The role of autophagy is reviewed, with an emphasis on the signaling pathways that are involved in regulation, and the consequences ofautophagy induction with regard to aging.

An insight into the role of autophagy in cell responses in the aging and neurodegenerative brain.

The critical changes of autophagy in the aging and neuro-degenerative brain and the role of key regulators of autphagy, which are directly related to oxidative stress, inflammation and longevity pathways are reviewed.

Staying young at heart: autophagy and adaptation to cardiac aging.

Autophagy in Human Health and Disease: Novel Therapeutic Opportunities.

Research efforts should now focus on understanding the survival-supporting and death-promoting roles of autophagy, how natural compounds interact exactly with the autophagic targets so as to induce or inhibit autophagement, and on the evaluation of their pharmacological effects in a more in-depth and mechanistic way.

Mitochondrial responsibility in ageing process: innocent, suspect or guilty

The importance of mitochondria to explain the ageing process in different models or organisms is shown and it is discussed if the cause of aging is dependent on mitochondrial dysfunction of if the mitochondrial changes observed with age are a consequence of events taking place outside the mitochondrial compartment.

Regulation of the aging process by autophagy.




The involvement of macroautophagy in aging and anti-aging interventions.

  • A. Donati
  • Biology, Medicine
    Molecular aspects of medicine
  • 2006

Age-related changes in the autophagic proteolysis of rat isolated liver cells: effects of antiaging dietary restrictions.

DR significantly improves the susceptibility of liver cells to lysosomal degradation, and it prevents decline with increasing age, so it is suggested that improved liver autophagy and lysOSomal degradation might be part of the antiaging mechanisms of DR.

Targets for antiageing drugs

  • E. Bergamini
  • Medicine
    Expert opinion on therapeutic targets
  • 2005
The process of ageing denotes a postmaturational deterioration of cells and organisms with the passage of time, an increased vulnerability to challenges and a decreased ability to survive. Causes may

Age-related changes in the regulation of autophagic proteolysis in rat isolated hepatocytes.

The conclusion is that altered regulation of autophagic proteolysis decreases susceptibility of older cells to lysosomal degradation, and it may lead to the accumulation of altered organelles and membranes.

Selective mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy, as a targeted defense against oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and aging.

The term "mitophagy" is proposed to emphasize the non-random nature of the selective autophagy of mitochondria and may play a key role in retarding accumulation of somatic mutations of mtDNA with aging.

The pleiotropic role of autophagy: from protein metabolism to bactericide

The biological significance of autophagy from yeast to higher eukaryotes is discussed and several other roles for autophile have been discovered, such as presentation of endogenous antigens and degradation of invasive bacteria.

Stimulation of macroautophagy can rescue older cells from 8-OHdG mtDNA accumulation: a safe and easy way to meet goals in the SENS agenda.

It is concluded that the age-related changes in mtDNA and function are likely to be the consequence of a failure of macroautophagy in the recognition and disposal of a small number of severely injured mitochondria, and that easy and safe ways are available to counteract this change.

The Molecular Mechanism of Autophagy

This review focuses on the yeast system, which has provided most of the insight into the molecular mechanism of autophagy and the Cvt pathway, and highlights the most recent additions to the current knowledge of both pathways.