The Risk Principle in Action: What Have We Learned From 13,676 Offenders and 97 Correctional Programs?

@article{Lowenkamp2006TheRP,
  title={The Risk Principle in Action: What Have We Learned From 13,676 Offenders and 97 Correctional Programs?},
  author={Christopher T. Lowenkamp and Edward J. Latessa and Alexander M. Holsinger},
  journal={Crime \& Delinquency},
  year={2006},
  volume={52},
  pages={77 - 93}
}
Over the recent past there have been several meta-analyses and primary studies that support the importance of the risk principle. Oftentimes these studies, particularly the meta-analyses, are limited in their ability to assess how the actual implementation of the risk principle by correctional agencies affects effectiveness in reducing recidivism. Furthermore, primary studies are typically limited to the assessment of one or two programs, which again limits the types of analyses conducted. This… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Reducing the Harm: Identifying Appropriate Programming for Low-Risk Offenders
M uch of the focus of programming evaluation research has been on the impact of recidivism rates for the high-risk offender. With limited funding and resources, it is necessary to direct services to
The Examination of Changes in Dynamic Risk Factors and Recidivism Over Time in Youth Offenders
Risk assessments that include dynamic risk factors are increasingly being utilized within the youth justice system to predict a young person’s likelihood to reoffend, to assist with case management,
30 Intervening Effectively with Juvenile Offenders: Answers from Meta-Analysis
A general critique of the injustices characterizing juvenile corrections became focused on the empirical effectiveness of rehabilitation programs, with the claim being made that “nothing works” to
Examining the Interaction between Level of Risk and Dosage of Treatment
TLDR
The results provide support for providing higher levels of dosage to high- risk offenders, with substantial reductions in recidivism for high-risk offenders receiving 200 or more hours of treatment.
Can Faith-BasedCorrectional Programs Work? An Outcome Evaluation of the InnerChange Freedom Initiative in Minnesota
TLDR
Examining recidivism outcomes among offenders released from Minnesota prisons between 2003 and 2009 revealed that participating in InnerChange significantly reduced reoffending, although it did not have a significant impact on reincarceration for a technical violation revocation.
The Effectiveness of Correctional Rehabilitation: A Review of Systematic Reviews
The effects of correctional interventions on recidivism have important public safety implications when offenders are released from probation or prison. Hundreds of studies have been conducted on
Does Change in Risk Matter?: Examining Whether Changes in Offender Risk Characteristics Influence Recidivism Outcomes
The Post Conviction Risk Assessment (PCRA) is a correctional assessment tool utilized by federal probation officers that identifies offenders most likely to commit new crimes and the criminogenic
Why the risk and needs principles are relevant to correctional programs (even to employment programs)
It is rare today to read an article or study on correctional intervention programs that that does not refer to the work of Andrews, Bonta, and Gendreau and their risk, need, responsivity (RNR)
Patterns of Change in Dynamic Risk Factors over Time in Youth Offenders
TLDR
Whether the dynamic risk factors outlined in the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model do in fact change over time and, if so, to investigate the effect of youth-specific predictors on these changes, have implications for the RNR framework, for improving the accuracy of risk assessments, and for informing treatment implementation.
The impact of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the recidivism of high risk probationers: Results from a randomized trial
Community corrections are being used with increasing regularity for the supervision and management of serious and violent offenders. Attempts to increase the frequency and severity of conditions of
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 47 REFERENCES
A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of an Intensive Rehabilitation Supervision Program
TLDR
Evaluating a cognitive-behavioral treatment program delivered within the context of intensive community supervision via electronic monitoring showed that treatment was effective in reducing recidivism for higher risk offenders, confirming the risk principle of offender treatment.
School-Based Prevention of Problem Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis
This study examines the features of effective school-based prevention of crime, substance use, dropout/nonattendance, and other conduct problems. It summarizes, using meta-analytic techniques,
Can Intervention Rehabilitate Serious Delinquents?
Much contemporary discussion of the future of the juvenile court revolves around the balance between rehabilitation and punishment, especially with regard to the most serious juvenile offenders.
What Works for Female Offenders: A Meta-Analytic Review
Although the question of what works for general offender populations has received considerable attention within the rehabilitation literature, very little research has examined female offenders. The
Predicting relapse: a meta-analysis of sexual offender recidivism studies.
TLDR
The results suggest that applied risk assessments of sexual offenders should consider separately the offender's risk for sexual and nonsexual recidivism.
DOES CORRECTIONAL TREATMENT WORK? A CLINICALLY RELEVANT AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY INFORMED META-ANALYSIS *
TLDR
Clinical sensitivity and a psychologically informed perspective on crime may assist in the renewed service, research, and conceptual efforts that are strongly indicated by the review.
The effects of school-based intervention programs on aggressive behavior: a meta-analysis.
TLDR
Research on the effectiveness of school-based programs for preventing or reducing aggressive behavior was synthesized with a meta-analysis and higher risk youth showed greater reductions in aggressive behavior, poorly implemented programs produced smaller effects, and different types of programs were generally similar in their effectiveness.
The prediction of criminal and violent recidivism among mentally disordered offenders: a meta-analysis.
TLDR
The results showed that the major predictors of recidivism were the same for mentally disordered offenders as for nondisordered offenders and criminal history variables were the best predictors and clinical variables showed the smallest effect sizes.
EVALUATION OF OHIO'S COMMUNITY BASED CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES AND HALFWAY HOUSE PROGRAMS FINAL REPORT
ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This was a large-scale project that could not have been completed without the efforts and cooperation of many programs, agencies, and individuals. The authors wish to thank the
Programmatic and Nonprogrammatic Aspects of Successful Intervention: New Directions for Research
TLDR
Results of correctional intervention effectiveness based on 32 literature reviews and meta-analyses that addressed 20 separate programmatic approaches such as educational training or group counseling and a proposed new direction for research: the study of programs as composites of programmatic approach and nonprogrammatic factors are introduced.
...
...