The Rise of Illiberal Democracy

  title={The Rise of Illiberal Democracy},
  author={Fareed Zakaria},
  journal={Foreign Affairs},
The American diplomat Richard Holbrooke pondered a problem on the eve of the September 1996 elections in Bosnia, which were meant to restore civic life to that ravaged country. "Suppose the election was declared free and fair," he said, and those elected are "racists, fascists, separatists, who are publicly opposed to [peace and r?int?gration]. That is the dilemma." Indeed it is, not just in the former Yugoslavia, but increasingly around the world. Democratically elected regimes, often ones… Expand
The Emergence of Illiberal Democracy in the European Union: The Hungarian Case
In 2010, the Hungarian government established so-called “illiberal democracy.” Western courtiers have looked on with bewilderment over the past eight years at this political trajectory of Hungary.Expand
Deconstructing democracy: the Arab–Jewish divide in the Jewish state
The end of the Cold War ushered in a new era of optimism among observers of world politics. Supposedly we were witnessing the ‘end of history’ as countries in all continents rushed to developExpand
Conclusions to the Special Issue on Violence, Elections, and Party Politics
At the end of the Cold War, now more than twenty years ago, there was a burst of optimism among Western observers that the collapse of the communist enterprise would lead to the near universalExpand
Weak Institutions , Incomplete Democratic Transitions , and War
The centerpiece of U.S. foreign policy in the 1990s was the claim that promoting democracy would foster peace. Noting that no two democracies have ever fought a war against each other, President BillExpand
The Democratic Peace Theory Reframed: The Impact of Modernity
This article argues that the democratic peace theorists have overlooked the defining development that underlies that peace of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: the industrial-technologicalExpand
Anatomy of Hartal Politics in Bangladesh
Political instability remains the key impediment to economic development in Bangladesh. With the passing of time, the hope for political stability is becoming more illusory and people from all walksExpand
Twenty Years of Postcommunism: Freedom and the State
Ghia Nodia is professor of politics at Ilia Chavchavadze State Univer- sity in Tbilisi, Georgia, where he also heads the International School of Caucasus Studies and the Caucasus Institute for Peace,Expand
Illiberal Democrats versus Undemocratic Liberals: The Struggle Over the Future of Thailand's Fragile Democracy
Abstract This article examines the inter-related factors that underpin the fragility of Thailand's democracy. Uneven economic development, the high levels of income inequality, and unequal access toExpand
Moving towards EU membership and away from liberal democracy
ABSTRACT The article concludes the Special Issue, Illiberal Politics in Southeast Europe, on the retreat of liberal democracy in the region. It focuses on the central themes that link all the papersExpand
Mimicking Democracy to Prolong Autocracies
Democracy has suffered eight straight years of global decline. This was the finding Freedom House issued in its 2014 report examining the state of global political rights and civil liberties. ThisExpand


Politics in plural societies : a theory of democratic instability
concepts developed and the politics of plural societies. We have no intention of resolving this problem in summary fashion. As a result, the next chapter is devoted in its entirety to an analysis ofExpand
Empirical democratic theory
10:0011:45 Panel 1aInstitutions (SSL 117 ) Discussant: Katie Bolzendahl, Department of Sociology, UCI Neil Chaturvedi – The People’s Will: State Supreme Court Justices as Representatives Thomas J.Expand
Why Turkey Is the only Muslim Democracy