The Rise and Fall of Zimbabwe

  title={The Rise and Fall of Zimbabwe},
  author={Thomas N. Huffman},
  journal={The Journal of African History},
  pages={353 - 366}
  • T. Huffman
  • Published 1 July 1972
  • History
  • The Journal of African History
Two hypotheses are available for the origin of the Zimbabwe culture. A religious hypothesis attributes its development to an African society in isolation, placing it in the class of a primary state. In contrast, the trade hypothesis maintains that it was a secondary state resulting from the gold trade. If the religious hypothesis is correct, then Zimbabwe would be an exception to all other known cases of primary state formation. The archaeological evidence points to a horticultural subsistence… 

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