The Rise and Decline of the American Ghetto

  title={The Rise and Decline of the American Ghetto},
  author={David Cutler and Edward L. Glaeser and Jacob L. Vigdor},
  journal={Journal of Political Economy},
  pages={455 - 506}
This paper examines segregation in American cities from 1890 to 1990. From 1890 to 1940, ghettos were born as blacks migrated to urban areas and cities developed vast expanses filled with almost entirely black housing. From 1940 to 1970, black migration continued and the physical areas of the ghettos expanded. Since 1970, there has been a decline in segregation as blacks have moved into previously all‐white areas of cities and suburbs. Across all these time periods there is a strong positive… 
Creating the Black Ghetto
It is found that the development of ghettos in an embryonic form was well underway in 1880, that segregation became intense prior to the Great Migration, and that in this whole period blacks were segregated based on race rather than class or southern origin.
Emergent Ghettos: Black Neighborhoods in New York and Chicago, 1880–19401
It is shown that blacks were unusually highly isolated in 1880 given their small share of the total population and that segregation reached high levels in both cities earlier than previously reported and that the processes that created large black ghettos were already in place several decades before 1940.
Weighing and Measuring the Decline in Residential Segregation
In the late 1960s, American cities were profoundly segregated. Cities had witnessed two immense waves of African-American migration from the rural South over the previous half-century. These
The Great Migration and Residential Segregation in American Cities during the Twentieth Century
ABSTRACT The Great Migration from the South and the rise of racial residential segregation strongly shaped the twentieth-century experience of African Americans. Yet, little attention has been
Residential Segregation at the Dawn of the Great Migration: Evidence from the 1910 and 1920 Census
Abstract The second decade of the twentieth century is viewed as the pivotal period for ghetto formation in the United States. This decade witnessed the onset of the Great Migration and it was during
Was the Late 19th Century a Golden Age of Racial Integration
Cutler, Glaeser, and Vigdor (JPE 1999) find evidence that the late 19th century was a period of relatively low residential segregation between blacks and whites. Segregation increased substantially
Black Retail Enterprise and Racial Segregation in Northern Cities before the “Ghetto”
Past research indicates that black entrepreneurship in northern cities was unaffected by residential segregation by race until after the formation of the “ghetto.” In the present study, however, an
Before The Philadelphia Negro: Residential Segregation in a Nineteenth-Century Northern City
This work draws on data from the Philadelphia Social History Project and other new sources to study trends in this city as far back as 1850 and extending to 1900, a time when DuBois had completed his epic study of The Philadelphia Negro.
Segregation of minorities in the metropolis: two decades of change
It is shown that black-white segregation declined modestly at the national level after 1980, while Hispanic and Asian segregation rose in most metropolitan areas, associated especially with the more rapid growth in the Hispanics and Asian populations.
The Persistence of Segregation in the 21st Century Metropolis
The traditional black-white color line in the American metropolis is being replaced by a more complex pattern of color lines involving multiple groups with different racial and ethnic origins, resulting in a degree of neighborhood diversity that used to be quite rare.


Urban Renewal, Public Housing and the Racial Shaping of Atlanta
  • R. Bayor
  • History, Economics
    Journal of Policy History
  • 1989
A number of American cities experienced urban renewal in the 1950s and 1960s. Historians and others who have chronicled the urban changes of those decades have cited economic redevelopment as the
Explaining the rise of ghetto poverty in the 1980s.
This study describes and explains the increase in concentrated poverty among Blacks in 80 metropolitan areas in the US during the 1980s. Economic demographic social and policy contexts vary across
Trends in the residential segregation of blacks Hispanics and Asians: 1970-1980.
This paper examines trends in residential segregation for blacks Hispanics and Asians in 60 [U.S.] SMSAs between 1970 and 1980 using data taken from the 1970 Fourth Count Summary tapes and the 1980
Changes in the segregation of whites from blacks during the 1980s: small steps toward a more integrated society.
This paper represents the first analysis of black-white residential segregation for 1980-1990. It evaluates patterns for all metropolitan areas with substantial black populations. The results show a
White Flight from Racially Integrated Neighbourhoods in the 1970s: the Cleveland Experience
An econometric model of 1970-80 residential turnover rates for white households is estimated for census tracts in Cuyahoga County, Cleveland, Ohio. Results indicate that 1970 tract percentage black,
Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City
Ground-breaking when first published in 1945, Black Metropolis remains a landmark study of race and urban life. Based on a mass of research conducted by Works Progress Administration field workers in
Negro Urban Clusters in the Postbellum South
rT HE history of development of Negro residential areas in the South is distinctly different from the history of their development in the North.' The differences in the character and morphology of
Teenage Employment and the Spatial Isolation of Minority and Poverty Households
Using micro data from the US Census, this paper tests the importance of the spatial isolation of minority and poverty households for youth employment in the largest US metropolitan areas. We first
Racial Discrimination, Segregation, and the Price of Housing
This article presents empirical estimates of racial discrimination in the New Haven, Connecticut, housing market. The results are based on over 200 rental units for which there is comprehensive