The Reversal of the Gender Gap in Education and Its Consequences for Family Life

@article{Bavel2018TheRO,
  title={The Reversal of the Gender Gap in Education and Its Consequences for Family Life},
  author={Jan Van Bavel and Christine R. Schwartz and Albert Esteve},
  journal={Annual Review of Sociology},
  year={2018}
}
Although men tended to receive more education than women in the past, the gender gap in education has reversed in recent decades in most Western and many non-Western countries. We review the literature about the implications for union formation, assortative mating, the division of paid and unpaid work, and union stability in Western countries. The bulk of the evidence points to a narrowing of gender differences in mate preferences and declining aversion to female status-dominant relationships… 

Couples’ Relative Education and the Division of Domestic Work in France, Spain, and the United States

The reversal of the gender gap in education and the emergence of couples in which the woman has a better economic or education status than her partner have been key shifts in family dynamics in

Does women's educational advantage mean a more egalitarian distribution of gender roles? Evidence from dual-earner couples in Spain

In most Western countries, there is clear evidence of a reduction and even a reversal of the gender gap in education. However, there are doubts about the effect of this reversal on family life and

Gender Gaps in Education

This chapter reviews the growing body of research in economics which concentrates on the education gender gap and its evolution, over time and across countries. The survey first focuses on gender

Family Inequality: Diverging Patterns in Marriage, Cohabitation, and Childbearing

TLDR
It is argued that college graduate parents use marriage as a commitment device to facilitate intensive joint investments in their children for less educated couples for whom such investments are less desirable or less feasible, commitment and, hence, marriage has less value relative to cohabitation.

Long-term trends in the gender income gap within couples. West-Germany, 1978-2011

  • A. HauptS. Strauss
  • Economics
    Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society
  • 2022
Over the past 50 years, women in Western societies have increased their level of education and their participation in the labour market. Nevertheless, they continue to contribute significantly less

Does National Context Matter When Women Surpass Their Partner in Status?

There is growing evidence that couples in non-traditional relationships in which the woman attains higher status than her male partner experience more negative relationship outcomes than traditional

Gender and Educational Differentials in Marital Sorting of Hispanic Young Adults

Over the past few decades, Hispanic young adults have made impressive gains in educational attainment, but improvements have not been even by gender, with Latinas now averaging more schooling than

The Gender Cliff in the Relative Contribution to the Household Income: Insights from Modelling Marriage Markets in 27 European Countries

  • A. GrowJ. Van Bavel
  • Economics
    European journal of population = Revue europeenne de demographie
  • 2020
TLDR
A simulation approach is used to model marriage markets and results show that a cliff can emerge from inequalities in men's and women’s average incomes, even if they do not attach special meaning to a situation in which a wife earns more than her husband.

Gender-Egalitarian Attitudes and Assortative Mating by Age and Education

  • A. Trimarchi
  • Sociology
    European journal of population = Revue europeenne de demographie
  • 2022
In the last decades, conventional patterns of assortative mating have been challenged by changes in the gender-gap in education. In many countries, educationally hypogamous unions (i.e. the woman is

The Ex-Factor: Examining the Gendered Effect of Divorce on Voter Turnout

The absence of a gendered analysis of the effect of marriage on voting is surprising given researchers’ cognizance of the heterogeneous effects of marriage on a range of other social outcomes. In
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 184 REFERENCES

The Reversal of the Gender Gap in Education and Trends in Marital Dissolution

TLDR
A large shift is shown in the association between spouses’ relative education and marital dissolution, and the relative stability of marriages between educational equals has increased, consistent with a shift away from rigid gender specialization toward more flexible, egalitarian partnerships.

The End of Hypergamy: Global Trends and Implications.

TLDR
It is asserted that the reversal of the gender gap in education is strongly associated with the end of hypergamy and increases in hypogamy (wives have more education that their husbands), which provides near universal evidence of this trend.

The reversal of gender inequality in education, union formation and fertility in Europe

While men have always received more education than women in the past, this gender imbalance in education has recently turned around. For the first time in European history, there are now more highly

Assortative Mating and the Reversal of Gender Inequality in Education in Europe: An Agent-Based Model

TLDR
An agent-based computational model is developed that explicates the mechanisms that may have linked the reversal of gender inequality in education with observed changes in educational assortative mating and argues that the model provides a useful computational laboratory to explore and quantify the implications of scenarios for the future.

The Reversed Gender Gap in Education and Assortative Mating in Europe

TLDR
It is found that highly educated women tend to partner more often “downwards” with less educated men, rather than remaining single more often, and medium educated women are found to partner less often ‘upwards’ with highly educated men.

Changing Gender Norms and Marriage Dynamics in the United States.

  • Léa Pessin
  • Sociology
    Journal of marriage and the family
  • 2018
TLDR
An inverted U-shaped relationship between gender norms and divorce was revealed: an initial increase in divorce was observed when gender norms were predominantly traditional, but this reversed as gender norms became egalitarian.

His and Her Education and Marital Dissolution: Adding a Contextual Dimension

TLDR
This study investigates how educational matches in married couples are associated with divorce risks taking into account the local prevalence of hypogamy and reveals that marriages with at least one highly educated partner, male or female, were less divorce prone compared to otherwise similar couple types.

Gender-specific trends in the value of education and the emerging gender gap in college completion

Analysis of March Current Population Survey data from 1964 through 2002 shows that white women overtook white men in their rates of college completion and that this phenomenon occurred during a

Can We Finish the Revolution? Gender, Work-Family Ideals, and Institutional Constraint

TLDR
Examining the extent to which institutional constraints, including workplace policies, affect young, unmarried men's and women’s preferences for their future work-family arrangements sheds light on important questions about the role of institutions in shaping work- family preferences, underscoring the notion that seemingly gender-traditional work- Family decisions are largely contingent on the constraints of current workplaces.

Educational Pairings, Motherhood, and Women’s Relative Earnings in Europe

TLDR
It is found that the newly emerged pattern of hypogamy is associated with higher relative earnings for women in all countries and that the motherhood penalty on relative earnings is considerably lower in hypogamous couples, but neither of these findings can explain away international country differences.
...