The Relationship of Reliability and Validity of Personality Tests to Frame-of-Reference Instructions and Within-Person Inconsistency

  title={The Relationship of Reliability and Validity of Personality Tests to Frame-of-Reference Instructions and Within-Person Inconsistency},
  author={Craig M. Reddock and Michael D. Biderman and Nhung Thi Hong Nguyen},
  journal={Wiley-Blackwell: International Journal of Selection \& Assessment},
The efficacy of both frame-of-reference (FOR) instructions and a measure of within-person inconsistency in predicting grade point average was investigated. The IPIP Big Five personality questionnaire was given to 329 students with generic instructions and at school FOR instructions. The Wonderlic Personnel Test was also administered. A measure of within-person inconsistency was created based on the standard deviations of responses to items within the same Big Five dimension. The validity of… 

Item‐Level Frame‐Of‐Reference Effects in Personality Testing: An Investigation of Incremental Validity in an Organizational Setting

A recent line of research has investigated the frame-of-reference effect on personality scale scores, in which self-report personality items are contextualized to the specific performance setting

A matter of context: A meta‐analytic investigation of the relative validity of contextualized and noncontextualized personality measures.

The empirical evidence that has accumulated in support of the notion that personality is a valid predictor of employee performance is vast, yet debate on the matter continues. This study investigates

The Org-B5: Development of a Short Work Frame-of-Reference Measure of the Big Five

The literature suggests that contextualized personality measures yield stronger predictive validity. However, frame-of-reference (FOR) theory is underdeveloped, and existing work-FOR personality

Intraindividual personality change: Situational influences, patterns of change, and frequency-based measurement

A large amount of research supports the idea that little change in personality occurs over time (e.g., Caspi & Roberts, 2001). However, changes in an individual’s personality across different

A Comparison of General and Work‐Specific Personality Measures as Predictors of Organizational Citizenship Behavior

The current study compared general and work‐specific measures of personality as predictors of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Consistent with the literature on frame‐of‐reference effects

On Being the Same in Different Places: Evaluating Frame-of-Reference Effects Across Two Social Contexts.

Standard NEO-FFI self-Ratings generally showed higher self-informant agreement with both types of informants than contextualized self-ratings, which suggests that validity is enhanced more by specific trait- informant combinations than by the contextualization of items to social contexts.

Enhancing the Predictive Potential of Personality: Isolating Multiple Components of Trait Expression via a Single Administration Design

Abstract : Decades of research support that people behave differently in different situations. The focus of this research was on advancing the measurement of personality by more careful of

Personality dynamics at work: The effects of form, time, and context of variability

The study aimed to investigate the status of within-person state variability in neuroticism and conscientiousness as individual differences constructs by exploring their (a) temporal stability, (b)

The Big Five Personality Traits and Academic Performance: A Meta-Analysis.

Openness, despite its weak overall relative importance, was found to be an important determinant of student performance in the early years of school and demonstrated significantly larger effect sizes at the elementary/middle school level compared to the subsequent levels.



Frame-of-reference effects on personality scale scores and criterion-related validity.

Increased use of personality inventories in employee selection has led to concerns regarding factors that influence the validity of such measures. A series of studies was conducted to examine the

A closer look at the frame-of-reference effect in personality scale scores and validity.

This article contributes to the understanding of why the use of a frame-of-reference leads to increased criterion-related validity of personality inventories by providing an explanation for the moderate validities of generic Personality inventories.

A field study of frame-of-reference effects on personality test validity.

The authors tested the effects of providing an "at work" frame-of-reference on the validity of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory among a sample of customer service supervisors and found that frame- of-reference moderated the legitimacy of the Extraversion and Openness to Experience subscales after controlling for cognitive ability.

Testing the Rules of Justice: The Effects of Frame-of-Reference and Pre-Test Validity Information on Personality Test Responses and Test Perceptions

The resurgence of personality tests in selection has sparked interest in factors that may increase the utility and acceptability of these tests. Following a justice framework, the present study

On the nature of intraindividual personality variability: reliability, validity, and associations with well-being.

A new variability index is developed that is reliable and valid and can predict actual changes in self-reports over time, and once mean-level variance is removed, intraindividual variability is no longer related to well-being.

Metatraits: Enhancing Criterion‐Related Validity Through the Assessment of Traitedness1

With the growing use of personality tests as predictors of job performance, the reliable measurement of these personality variables has become important to selection researchers and practitioners.

Beyond alpha: an empirical examination of the effects of different sources of measurement error on reliability estimates for measures of individual differences constructs.

The authors conclude that transient error exists in all 3 trait domains and is especially large in the domain of affective traits.


Personality constructs have been demonstrated to be useful for explaining and predicting attitudes, behaviors, performance, and outcomes in organizational settings. Many professionally developed

Personnel selection and the five-factor model: reexamining the effects of appplicant's frame of reference.

The current research reports the results of a new study demonstrating the adequacy of the five-factor model as a descriptor of job applicant, job incumbent, and student personality.