The Red Rain Phenomenon of Kerala and its Possible Extraterrestrial Origin

  title={The Red Rain Phenomenon of Kerala and its Possible Extraterrestrial Origin},
  author={Godfrey Louis and A. S. Kumar},
  journal={Astrophysics and Space Science},
A red rain phenomenon occurred in Kerala, India starting from 25th July 2001, in which the rainwater appeared coloured in various localized places that are spread over a few hundred kilometers in Kerala. Maximum cases were reported during the first 10 days and isolated cases were found to occur for about 2 months. The striking red colouration of the rainwater was found to be due to the suspension of microscopic red particles having the appearance of biological cells. These particles have no… Expand
Autofluorescence characteristics of the red rain cells
Red rain cells are the microscopic biological cells which appear mixed in rain water in large quantity imparting visibly red color to the rain water in a strange event called red rain phenomenon. OurExpand
The study showed that the red rain cells cannot be equated with Trentepohlia and still remain identified and distinct from known microbe on the earth. Expand
An optical spectroscopic study correlating the yellow rain and cultured red rain microbes
A number of cases of yellow colored rain occurred in Kerala, India in July-August 2001 along with the red rain phenomenon. Recently during the end of July 2008 a few cases of yellow colored rainExpand
Biological and microbial origin: a comparison of the morphology of red rain samples from India and UK.
The results show that different types of red rain exist, and the similarities and differences between the cells occurring in the red rain events are discussed. Expand
Growth and replication of red rain cells at 121°C and their red fluorescence
We have shown that the red cells found in the Red Rain (which fell on Kerala, India, in 2001) survive and grow after incubation for periods of up to two hours at 121°C . Under these conditionsExpand
Biosignatures of 'Red Rain' Microbes Revealed by UV-Visible and Fluorescence Spectroscopy
The successful extraction of compounds from red rain cells using DMSO are reported, and their subsequent analysis by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy suggest the presence of porphyrin complexes inconsistent with chlorophyll, phycobilins and carotenoids. Expand
Morphological and Molecular Analysis Calls for a Reappraisal of the Red Rain Cells of Kerala
Comparisons based on elemental composition using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, as well as Raman spectral signatures demonstrate significant dissimilarities in their molecular composition of the red rain cells. Expand
Growth characteristics of red rain microbes at temperatures below 100 °C
The red rain microbes, which caused red rain phenomenon in Kerala, India, exhibit many characteristics much different from conventional microorganisms. Previous study indicates that these microbesExpand
Unusual autofluorescence characteristic of cultured red-rain cells
The red cells found in the red rain in Kerala, India are now considered as a possible case of extraterrestrial life form. These cells can undergo rapid replication even at an extreme high temperatureExpand
A possible spontaneous generation of silicon utilizing minimal containers as precursors of life in the cosmos
Abstract Although experiments suggested that silica may help in early chemical evolution on Earth, however, their exact role in genesis of life is still unknown. In this experiment silicon utilizingExpand


Colored Rain on the West Coastal Region of India: Was it Due to a Dust Storm?
On 25 July 2001 some parts of Kerala in India on the west coast experienced the interesting phenomena called “colored rain.” Atmospheric dust particles had been detected on the previous day using aExpand
Comets: A vehicle for panspermia
Arguments are given for life being a cosmic phenomenon. The physical and chemical conditions associated with comets favour the hypothesis that comets carry, amplify and disperse life throughout theExpand
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