Pediatric hydrocephalus is one of the most frequently diagnosed diseases in pediatric neurosurgical practice. Approximately 60% of the total cases of hydrocephalus in children are congenital or acquired in childhood. It is a typical surgical disease and if left untreated, most cases are lethal. Traditionally, shunts are the main treatment since 1940s. However, sometimes shunt dependency in children with hydrocephalus is a terrible problem, and is more dangerous in emerging countries than developed countries because of the difficulties that prevent access to prompt neurosurgical intervention, in cases of infection or shunt malfunction. In this scenario, mainly in obstructive hydrocephalus, Neuroendoscopic techniques such as Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy (ETV) become vitally important in the management of these patients.