The Rates of Hypernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts: Implications for Their Progenitors

@article{Podsiadlowski2004TheRO,
  title={The Rates of Hypernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts: Implications for Their Progenitors},
  author={Philipp Podsiadlowski and Paolo A. Mazzali and Ken’ichi Nomoto and Davide Lazzati and Enrico Cappellaro},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal Letters},
  year={2004},
  volume={607},
  pages={L17 - L20}
}
A critical comparison of estimates for the rates of hypernovae (HNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is presented. Within the substantial uncertainties, the estimates are shown to be quite comparable and give a galactic rate of 10-6 to 10-5 yr-1 for both events. These rates are several orders of magnitude lower than the rate of core-collapse supernovae, suggesting that the evolution leading to an HN/GRB requires special circumstances, very likely due to binary interactions. Various possible binary… 
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