The RNAi revolution

@article{Novina2004TheRR,
  title={The RNAi revolution},
  author={Carl D Novina and Phillip A. Sharp},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2004},
  volume={430},
  pages={161-164}
}
The term RNAi — short for RNA interference — crops up again and again in biology research these days. This is in part because of its power as a laboratory tool, and in part because it is a widespread natural phenomenon. 
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The characterization and current understanding of environmental RNAi is described and its potential applications are discussed, including functional genomics and agricultural pest control. Expand
A computational view of microRNAs and their targets.
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A combination of structural and biochemical analyses provide compelling evidence that human Argonaute2 (Ago2), a protein already known to be a key player in the RNAi pathway, is in fact the missing endonuclease. Expand
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References

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The rde-1 Gene, RNA Interference, and Transposon Silencing in C. elegans
TLDR
It is shown that rde-1 is a member of the piwi/sting/argonaute/zwille/eIF2C gene family conserved from plants to vertebrates and the possibility that one natural function of RNAi is transposon silencing is discussed. Expand
siRNAs can function as miRNAs.
TLDR
It is shown that a short interfering RNA (siRNA) can repress expression of a target mRNA with partially complementary binding sites in its 3' UTR, much like the demonstrated function of endogenously encoded microRNAs (miRNAs). Expand
MicroRNAs Genomics, Biogenesis, Mechanism, and Function
TLDR
Although they escaped notice until relatively recently, miRNAs comprise one of the more abundant classes of gene regulatory molecules in multicellular organisms and likely influence the output of many protein-coding genes. Expand
A species of small antisense RNA in posttranscriptional gene silencing in plants.
TLDR
The 25-nucleotide antisense RNA detected in transgene-induced PTGS is likely synthesized from an RNA template and may represent the specificity determinant of PTGS. Expand
Vertebrate MicroRNA Genes
TLDR
A computational procedure (MiRscan) is developed to identify miRNA genes and applies it here to miRNAs known to control the expression of other genes at the posttranscriptional level. Expand
mut-7 of C. elegans, Required for Transposon Silencing and RNA Interference, Is a Homolog of Werner Syndrome Helicase and RNaseD
TLDR
This work mutagenized one silenced strain of C. elegans and isolated mutants in which Tc1 had been activated in the germline, finding one of the mutated genes, mut-7, to encode a protein with homology to RNaseD, providing support for the notion that RNAi works by dsRNA-directed, enzymatic RNA degradation. Expand
RNAi-Mediated Targeting of Heterochromatin by the RITS Complex
TLDR
The purification of an RNAi effector complex termed RITS (RNA-induced initiation of transcriptional gene silencing) that is required for heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast is described and a mechanism for the role of the RNAi machinery and small RNAs in targeting of heterochROMatin complexes and epigenetic genesilencing at specific chromosomal loci is suggested. Expand
Hairpin RNAs and Retrotransposon LTRs Effect RNAi and Chromatin-Based Gene Silencing
TLDR
These analyses directly implicate interspersed LTRs in regulating gene expression during cellular differentiation in plants through nearby retrotransposon long terminal repeats. Expand
Role for a bidentate ribonuclease in the initiation step of RNA interference
TLDR
Dicer is a member of the RNase III family of nucleases that specifically cleave double-stranded RNAs, and is evolutionarily conserved in worms, flies, plants, fungi and mammals, and has a distinctive structure, which includes a helicase domain and dualRNase III motifs. Expand
Targeted mRNA degradation by double-stranded RNA in vitro.
TLDR
The development of a cell-free system from syncytial blastoderm Drosophila embryos that recapitulates many of the features of RNAi is reported, demonstrating that RNAi can be mediated by sequence-specific processes in soluble reactions. Expand
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