The RNAi revolution

  title={The RNAi revolution},
  author={Carl D. Novina and Phillip A. Sharp},
The term RNAi — short for RNA interference — crops up again and again in biology research these days. This is in part because of its power as a laboratory tool, and in part because it is a widespread natural phenomenon. 
Medicine: A cholesterol connection in RNAi
RNA interference — RNAi for short — might provide a way to silence disease-associated genes, but problems of delivery have hampered progress. Those problems may have been solved, at least in animal
RNA interference: The silent treatment
Biotech firms are vying to harness the potential of RNA interference. But will its impact be in finding new disease targets, or in RNA-based drugs? Julie Clayton investigates.
The prospect of silencing disease using RNA interference.
The basic mechanism of RNAi and the therapeutic opportunities and obstacles for harnessing RNAi for therapy of human disease are discussed.
SiRNA-Silencing the Culprits Dr .
Plants as well as animals contain hundreds of small RNAs with distinct genes responsible for their regulation, which have been used in therapeutics aswell as in studying the development process.
Building mammalian signalling pathways with RNAi screens
This work has shown that RNAi can be scaled up for use in high-throughput techniques and is now at the brink of being able to harness the power of RNAi for large-scale functional discovery in mammalian cells.
RNAi: finding the elusive endonuclease.
A combination of structural and biochemical analyses provide compelling evidence that human Argonaute2 (Ago2), a protein already known to be a key player in the RNAi pathway, is in fact the missing endonuclease.
Gene discovery by ribozyme and siRNA libraries
Catalytic RNAs, also known as ribozymes, can be engineered to optimize their activities in the intracellular environment and ribozyme technology complements another RNA-based tool that is based on libraries of small interfering RNAs.
Phenomenal RNA Interference: From Mechanism to Application
The phenomenon of dsRNA-mediated interference, which was first demonstrated in nematodes in 1998, is thought to have evolved as a type of “genetic immune system” to protect organisms from the presence of foreign or unwanted genetic material.
A Simple and Cost Effective Method to Generate dsRNA for RNAi Studies in Invertebrates
Results showed that the dsRNAs prepared in vitro and in vivo possessed similar potency in inhibiting viral replication, which gives an alternative means to prepare large amounts of dsRNA at low cost.


siRNAs can function as miRNAs.
It is shown that a short interfering RNA (siRNA) can repress expression of a target mRNA with partially complementary binding sites in its 3' UTR, much like the demonstrated function of endogenously encoded microRNAs (miRNAs).
A species of small antisense RNA in posttranscriptional gene silencing in plants.
The 25-nucleotide antisense RNA detected in transgene-induced PTGS is likely synthesized from an RNA template and may represent the specificity determinant of PTGS.
Vertebrate MicroRNA Genes
A computational procedure (MiRscan) is developed to identify miRNA genes and applies it here to miRNAs known to control the expression of other genes at the posttranscriptional level.
RNAi-Mediated Targeting of Heterochromatin by the RITS Complex
The purification of an RNAi effector complex termed RITS (RNA-induced initiation of transcriptional gene silencing) that is required for heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast is described and a mechanism for the role of the RNAi machinery and small RNAs in targeting of heterochROMatin complexes and epigenetic genesilencing at specific chromosomal loci is suggested.
Hairpin RNAs and Retrotransposon LTRs Effect RNAi and Chromatin-Based Gene Silencing
These analyses directly implicate interspersed LTRs in regulating gene expression during cellular differentiation in plants through nearby retrotransposon long terminal repeats.
Role for a bidentate ribonuclease in the initiation step of RNA interference
Dicer is a member of the RNase III family of nucleases that specifically cleave double-stranded RNAs, and is evolutionarily conserved in worms, flies, plants, fungi and mammals, and has a distinctive structure, which includes a helicase domain and dualRNase III motifs.
Targeted mRNA degradation by double-stranded RNA in vitro.
The development of a cell-free system from syncytial blastoderm Drosophila embryos that recapitulates many of the features of RNAi is reported, demonstrating that RNAi can be mediated by sequence-specific processes in soluble reactions.