The RNA helicase RIG-I has an essential function in double-stranded RNA-induced innate antiviral responses

@article{Yoneyama2004TheRH,
  title={The RNA helicase RIG-I has an essential function in double-stranded RNA-induced innate antiviral responses},
  author={Mitsutoshi Yoneyama and Mika Kikuchi and Takashi Natsukawa and Noriaki Shinobu and Tadaatsu Imaizumi and Makoto Miyagishi and Kazunari Taira and Shizuo Akira and Takashi Fujita},
  journal={Nature Immunology},
  year={2004},
  volume={5},
  pages={730-737}
}
Intracellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a chief sign of replication for many viruses. Host mechanisms detect the dsRNA and initiate antiviral responses. In this report, we identify retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I), which encodes a DExD/H box RNA helicase that contains a caspase recruitment domain, as an essential regulator for dsRNA-induced signaling, as assessed by functional screening and assays. A helicase domain with intact ATPase activity was responsible for the dsRNA-mediated… 
RIG-I: an essential regulator of virus-induced interferon production.
  • M. Heim
  • Medicine
    Journal of hepatology
  • 2005
Intracellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a chief sign of replication for many viruses. Host mechanisms detect the dsRNA and initiate antiviral responses. In this report, we identify retinoic acid
RNA- and Virus-Independent Inhibition of Antiviral Signaling by RNA Helicase LGP2
TLDR
Results indicate that LGP2 can inhibit antiviral signaling independently of dsRNA or virus infection intermediates by engaging in a protein complex with IPS-1, and provide the first demonstration of protein interaction as an element of negative-feedback regulation of intracellular antiviral signaled by L GP2.
[Virus-induced expression of type I interferon genes].
TLDR
The function of RIG-I in antiviral innate immunity is discussed, which encodes a DExD/H box RNA helicase containing the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) as a critical regulator for dsRNA-induced signaling.
RIG-I-Mediated Antiviral Responses to Single-Stranded RNA Bearing 5'-Phosphates
TLDR
It is shown that influenza A virus infection does not generate dsRNA and that RIG-I is activated by viral genomic single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) bearing 5′-phosphates, and suggested that its ability to sense 5'-phosphorylated RNA evolved in the innate immune system as a means of discriminating between self and nonself.
Nonself RNA-sensing mechanism of RIG-I helicase and activation of antiviral immune responses.
Small self-RNA generated by RNase L amplifies antiviral innate immunity
TLDR
It is shown that small self-RNAs produced by the action of RNase L on cellular RNA induce IFN-β expression and that the signalling involves RIG-I, MDA5 and IPS-1.
SENSORS FOR REPLICATING VIRUSES AND INNATE IMMUNITY
TLDR
How viral replication in cytoplasm is detected by RIG‑I helicase and switch on signal cascades for initial antiviral responses is highlighted.
Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses
TLDR
It is found that RIG-I is essential for the production of interferons in response to RNA viruses including paramyxoviruses, influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus, whereas MDA5 is critical for picornavirus detection.
DHX36 Enhances RIG-I Signaling by Facilitating PKR-Mediated Antiviral Stress Granule Formation
TLDR
A novel function of DHX36 is identified as a critical regulator of PKR-dependent avSG to facilitate viral RNA recognition by RIG-I-like receptor (RLR).
Untangling the roles of RNA helicases in antiviral innate immunity
TLDR
Current knowledge of the importance of these key proteins in viral infection are reviewed, with a special focus on the interplay between the 2 main types of response that are activated by dsRNA.
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