The Qianlong Retrospect on the Chinese-martial (hanjun) Banners

  title={The Qianlong Retrospect on the Chinese-martial (hanjun) Banners},
  author={Pamela Kyle Crossley},
  journal={Late Imperial China},
  pages={107 - 63}
Few Chinese dynasties, and no "alien" dynasties in China, were secured without a means of transforming the conquered into conquerors. For the Qing (1636-1912) this process began among the Jurchens of the Northeast during Nurgaci's wars of unification in the late sixteenth century. The dynamics of subjugation and incorporation refined among the Jurchens were applied to the varied populations of Liaodong, and finally, after 1644, within China Proper (guannei). But when the empire was stabilized… 
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